Gebran Bassil - Head of FPM, Leader of the Strong Lebanon Bloc and Former Minister of Foreign Affairs

Manifesto

Legendary Member
Orange Room Supporter
@Genius there is no evidence of Christian presence in Keserwan prior to 1,600.

من الادلة تشير الى أن الوجود الشيعي كان كثيفاً في كسروان عند تعرضه للحملات المملوكية في مستهل القرن الرابع عشر، ويؤكد ذلك عدد الجنود الذين شاركوا في الهجوم العام 1305. لم يعد الوجود الشيعي الغالب في كسروان موضوع خلاف بعد ظهور الدراسات الحديثة وخصوصاً تلك التي اعتمدت على السجلات العثمانية الرسمية أو ما يسمى الدفتر خانة. وهي تظهر أن هذه المنطقة كانت عند الفتح العثماني وبقيت حتى عهد متأخر منطقة ذات اكثرية شيعية يقتصر سكان قراها الخمس الكبرى على الشيعة وهي القليعات وفيطرون وحراجل وبقعاتا ومجدل حابس، بينما تشاركهم أقليات من المسيحيين والسنة والدروز في قرى اخرى. وبقي الطابع الشيعي غالبا في كسروان بعد الفتح العثماني، في حين لم يتجاوز الموارنة نهر ابرهيم حتى ذلك الوقت. ويشير المطران يوسف دريان الى أنه ليس هناك بين أديرة كسروان العديدة دير واحد يسبق عهده القرن السابع عشر، وليس ثمة ذكر لماروني واحد أصله من كسروان قبل القرن السادس عشر. وإذا جاء ذكر الموارنة في ما كتبه الصليبيون فانهم لا يذكرونهم إلاّ في البلاد الواقعة بين طرابلس وجبيل، أما جنوب نهر ابرهيم فلا نرى لهم فيه أثرا. تكاثر الموارنة في كسروان على مر الاعوام بفعل الهجرة وطلب العمل والهرب من الاضطهاد السياسي والديني، وقد وجدوا في رعاية حكامهم الشيعة حرية دينية مطلقة. وبحسب ما يؤكده الأب لامانس فإن كسروان لم تكن من المقاطعات التي أوى اليها الموارنة قبل القرن الخامس عشر، وجميع السكان الذين سكنوا هذه المنطقة قبل هذا العهد كانوا من المتاولة

سعدون حمادة: الشيعة هم السكان الأصليون لكسروان وجبيل
 

Indie

Legendary Member
Orange Room Supporter
he seems to be speaking in an open mind and does not represent this identity you are bestowing on him Mr. Christian. So, do you want him to present a defense of Islam. Or do you want him to bring over the Christian imperial narrative bluffing its way through out history.

There is no such thing as a "Christian imperial narrative." There are Christian people who have had imperial ambitions of their own, despite, and not because of, their Christian identity.
 

HmsBThn

Legendary Member
@Genius there is no evidence of Christian presence in Keserwan prior to 1,600.

من الادلة تشير الى أن الوجود الشيعي كان كثيفاً في كسروان عند تعرضه للحملات المملوكية في مستهل القرن الرابع عشر، ويؤكد ذلك عدد الجنود الذين شاركوا في الهجوم العام 1305. لم يعد الوجود الشيعي الغالب في كسروان موضوع خلاف بعد ظهور الدراسات الحديثة وخصوصاً تلك التي اعتمدت على السجلات العثمانية الرسمية أو ما يسمى الدفتر خانة. وهي تظهر أن هذه المنطقة كانت عند الفتح العثماني وبقيت حتى عهد متأخر منطقة ذات اكثرية شيعية يقتصر سكان قراها الخمس الكبرى على الشيعة وهي القليعات وفيطرون وحراجل وبقعاتا ومجدل حابس، بينما تشاركهم أقليات من المسيحيين والسنة والدروز في قرى اخرى. وبقي الطابع الشيعي غالبا في كسروان بعد الفتح العثماني، في حين لم يتجاوز الموارنة نهر ابرهيم حتى ذلك الوقت. ويشير المطران يوسف دريان الى أنه ليس هناك بين أديرة كسروان العديدة دير واحد يسبق عهده القرن السابع عشر، وليس ثمة ذكر لماروني واحد أصله من كسروان قبل القرن السادس عشر. وإذا جاء ذكر الموارنة في ما كتبه الصليبيون فانهم لا يذكرونهم إلاّ في البلاد الواقعة بين طرابلس وجبيل، أما جنوب نهر ابرهيم فلا نرى لهم فيه أثرا. تكاثر الموارنة في كسروان على مر الاعوام بفعل الهجرة وطلب العمل والهرب من الاضطهاد السياسي والديني، وقد وجدوا في رعاية حكامهم الشيعة حرية دينية مطلقة. وبحسب ما يؤكده الأب لامانس فإن كسروان لم تكن من المقاطعات التي أوى اليها الموارنة قبل القرن الخامس عشر، وجميع السكان الذين سكنوا هذه المنطقة قبل هذا العهد كانوا من المتاولة

سعدون حمادة: الشيعة هم السكان الأصليون لكسروان وجبيل

Who persecuted the Shias in keserwan and jbeil. And why.
Now if you want to copy and paste such books from the internet, you can make your own conclusions and live happily hateful against the West ...
If you want the truth, you need more readings and an open mind.
 

HmsBThn

Legendary Member
There is no such thing as a "Christian imperial narrative." There are Christian people who have had imperial ambitions of their own, despite, and not because of, their Christian identity.

Which Imperial was she referring to?

They are simply amazing...
Ready to erase 1400 of Arab and Turkish barbaric invasions and solely focus on the Crusaders, which ironically, protected the Muslim minorities from genocides.
Why are the nusayris, Shias, Druze and metwalis concentrated where the Crusaders were located? Why did the mameluks unleash their fury on the Shias in Lebanon besides being shias?

And they really believe they don't teach the right history in Lebanon to hide the evil intentions of the Christians and the crusaders.
 

Mighty Goat

Legendary Member
Orange Room Supporter
There is no such thing as a "Christian imperial narrative." There are Christian people who have had imperial ambitions of their own, despite, and not because of, their Christian identity.

Are you suggesting that Christians are a people? If so, how is this people hood defined? by what ancestry?
I personally situate Christianity and Islam within imperial orders of centers of power not to people and their identity. Neither Islam not Christianity are religions of identity. Loyalty to the religious institution central order is what defines allegiance and not being born into a Christian descent.
 

Indie

Legendary Member
Orange Room Supporter
Are you suggesting that Christians are a people? If so, how is this people hood defined? by what ancestry?
I personally situate Christianity and Islam within imperial orders of centers of power not to people and their identity. Neither Islam not Christianity are religions of identity. Loyalty to the religious institution central order is what defines allegiance and not being born into a Christian descent.

I'm suggesting that Christianity is a religion / ideology that is seperate from politics. Therefore, speaking of an individual's or a group's political motivations as "Christian imperialism" is not accurate.

You basically support my stance when you say: "Neither Islam nor Christianity are religions of identity."

When a king of France goes on imperial conquests, his motivations are personal; they pertain to politics and economy. Said King might be born a Christian, but his political ambitions have nothing to do with Christianity.

The same cannot be said of Islam, which had political motivations tied to the faith since its inception. In fact, in the case of Islam, it's all political motivation thinly disguised as faith.
 

Mighty Goat

Legendary Member
Orange Room Supporter
Who persecuted the Shias in keserwan and jbeil. And why.
Now if you want to copy and paste such books from the internet, you can make your own conclusions and live happily hateful against the West ...
If you want the truth, you need more readings and an open mind.

In fact this is true:

. ويشير المطران يوسف دريان الى أنه ليس هناك بين أديرة كسروان العديدة دير واحد يسبق عهده القرن السابع عشر، وليس ثمة ذكر لماروني واحد أصله من كسروان قبل القرن السادس عشر


Maronites were considered also heretics by both the Orthodox Church and the Catholic Church until Fakhreddin invited the Austro Hungarian Catholic Church to convert them into Catholicism by building the Maronite-Catholic institutional order which did not exist before the seventeenth century.
See William Harris The Levant and other works.
 

Dark Angel

Legendary Member
I don't really get Bassil.

For the last year, he was campaigning against the resettlement of Syrian Refugees, citing Lebanon's inability to host 1.5 Million people a quarter of its population.

Now he wants to reclaim citizenship for those of Lebanese descent, which is actually quite ironic, considering that many first generation Lebanese immigrants who left before 1942, are actually Syrian on paper. LOL

Suddenly Lebanon is capable of hosting 14 Million people in the disapora? Has Bassil ever wondered what would happen to the already-saturated Lebanese job market if millions of immigrants decided to come back?

comparative analysis and assessment is a essential pillar/tool for the survival of the species according to the theory of evolution.

the fact that you put 2 million syrian & palestinian migrants in the same basket as the 14 million of Lebanese descent in the same basket so that you could pass judgment on bassil is yet another indication that your choices are not simply irrational but also destructive.

the Lebanese diaspora is well established wherever they live around the globe, they have foreign citizenship, they pay taxes to their corresponding government, and they are loyal to their host countries. awarding them the Lebanese citizenship will not put any burdens on Lebanon, but to the contrary, it will further strengthen our country by catalyzing and nurturing the relationship between generations of successful people abroad. they will certainly not come back to live in Lebanon tomorrow. and even if they came back for visits, it will only help our economy.

none of that can be said about the syrian and palestinian refugees who are a burden on our country in all aspects, economically, politically, militarily and impact our stability very negatively, without contributing much to our well being as a nation.

so how on earth can anyone come up with such obviously erroneous notions is simply beyond me...
 

Manifesto

Legendary Member
Orange Room Supporter
comparative analysis and assessment is a essential pillar/tool for the survival of the species according to the theory of evolution.

the fact that you put 2 million syrian & palestinian migrants in the same basket as the 14 million of Lebanese descent in the same basket so that you could pass judgment on bassil is yet another indication that your choices are not simply irrational but also destructive.

the Lebanese diaspora is well established wherever they live around the globe, they have foreign citizenship, they pay taxes to their corresponding government, and they are loyal to their host countries. awarding them the Lebanese citizenship will not put any burdens on Lebanon, but to the contrary, it will further strengthen our country by catalyzing and nurturing the relationship between generations of successful people abroad. they will certainly not come back to live in Lebanon tomorrow. and even if they came back for visits, it will only help our economy.

none of that can be said about the syrian and palestinian refugees who are a burden on our country in all aspects, economically, politically, militarily and impact our stability very negatively, without contributing much to our well being as a nation.

so how on earth can anyone come up with such obviously erroneous notions is simply beyond me...

I asked a simple question:

Is one's illegibility for Lebanese citizenship dependent on how much money he can contribute to the government?

What about Lebanese mothers who can't pass their nationality to their children?
 

Dark Angel

Legendary Member
In fact this is true:

. ويشير المطران يوسف دريان الى أنه ليس هناك بين أديرة كسروان العديدة دير واحد يسبق عهده القرن السابع عشر، وليس ثمة ذكر لماروني واحد أصله من كسروان قبل القرن السادس عشر


Maronites were considered also heretics by both the Orthodox Church and the Catholic Church until Fakhreddin invited the Austro Hungarian Catholic Church to convert them into Catholicism by building the Maronite-Catholic institutional order which did not exist before the seventeenth century.
See William Harris The Levant and other works.
beyond absurd, to say the least. the Maronite church has been affiliated with Rome and Catholicism all the way back since the early Crusades.

Following the Muslim conquest of Eastern Christendom outside Anatolia and Europe and after the establishment of secured lines of demarcation between Islamic Caliphs and Byzantine Emperors, little was heard from the Maronites for 400 years. Secure in their mountain strongholds, the Maronites were re-discovered in the mountains near Tripoli, Lebanon by Raymond of Toulouse on his way to conquer Jerusalem in the Great Crusade of 1096–1099. Raymond later returned to besiege Tripoli (1102–1109) after the conquest of Jerusalem in 1099, and relations between the Maronites and European Christianity were re-established.[20]

The Maronites assisted the crusaders and affirmed their affiliation with the Holy See of Rome in 1182.[21] To commemorate their communion, Maronite Patriarch Youseff Al Jirjisi received the crown and staff, marking his patriarchal authority, from Pope Paschal II in 1100 AD. In 1131, Maronite Patriarch Gregorios Al-Halati received letters from Pope Innocent II in which the Papacy recognized the authority of the Patriarchate of Antioch. Patriarch Jeremias II Al-Amshitti (1199–1230) became the first Maronite Patriarch to visit Rome when he attended the Fourth Council of the Lateran in 1215.[21] The Patriarchate of Antioch was also represented at the Council of Ferrara in 1438.[22]

Peter-Hans Kolvenback notes, "This contact with the Latin Church enriched the intellectual world of Europe in the Middle Ages. Maronites taught Oriental languages and literature at the universities of Italy and France."[18]

attempting to quote obscure authors does not make this a reality, and does not make their fallacies factually true.
 

Dark Angel

Legendary Member
I asked a simple question:

Is one's illegibility for Lebanese citizenship dependent on how much money he can contribute to the government?

What about Lebanese mothers who can't pass their nationality to their children?
that is not what you asked. you asked a completely different question, and i replied as you deserve to be replied to.
 

Dark Angel

Legendary Member
Which Imperial was she referring to?

They are simply amazing...
Ready to erase 1400 of Arab and Turkish barbaric invasions and solely focus on the Crusaders, which ironically, protected the Muslim minorities from genocides.
Why are the nusayris, Shias, Druze and metwalis concentrated where the Crusaders were located? Why did the mameluks unleash their fury on the Shias in Lebanon besides being shias?

And they really believe they don't teach the right history in Lebanon to hide the evil intentions of the Christians and the crusaders.

the shiites were eradicated from kesrwan and jbeil by the sunni mamalik and they mostly relocated to the relatively remote bikaa and hermel, then the ottomans continued the campaign against all minorities and imported sunnis from around their empire and settled them in the Lebanese cities after forcing the local population to flee towards the mountains.
 

Mighty Goat

Legendary Member
Orange Room Supporter
beyond absurd, to say the least. the Maronite church has been affiliated with Rome and Catholicism all the way back since the early Crusades.

Nevertheless, and regardless to the historical narrative the quote clearly states that there did not exist any Maronite churches until the seventeenth century and that Maronite came to become a subject of narrative during the sixteenth century.

This is also correlating to the beginning of the Catholic Church of reforming these forgotten Catholics and consequently built the Maronite Catholic Churches in Lebanon.
 

Dark Angel

Legendary Member
Nevertheless, and regardless to the historical narrative the quote clearly states that there did not exist any Maronite churches until the seventeenth century and that Maronite came to become a subject of narrative during the sixteenth century.

This is also correlating to the beginning of the Catholic Church of reforming these forgotten Catholics and consequently built the Maronite Catholic Churches in Lebanon.

regardless of the historical narrative? LOL right... let us take your narrative over recorded history, sure, why not, mrs PhD and academic researcher. so let us take only the quadisha valley as an example to examine your improvised theory

The Qannubin Monastery[edit]
The Qannubin Monastery (Deir Qannubin (دير قنوبين)), is on the northeast side of the Qadisha Valley. It is the oldest of the Maronite monasteries; although its foundation is often attributed to the Emperor Theodosius the Great in 375AD, it is more likely that it was established by a disciple of St Theodosius the Cenobite. For the most part it is cut into the rock cliff side - monastic cells, church, cloister, and accommodation for travelers.

Qannubin used to be the See of the Maronite Patriarch.

The Monastery of St Anthony of Qozhaya[edit]

Monastery of Qozhaya - July 2003
The Monastery of Qozhaya (Deir Mar Antonios Qozhaya (دير مارانطﻮنيوﺱ ﻗﺰحيا)) sits on the opposite flank of the Qadisha from Qannubin Monastery. Tradition has its foundation in the 4th century by St Hilarion, in honour of the Egyptian anchorite, St Anthony the Great, though the earliest documentary records date back only to around 1000AD. It was destroyed in the 16th century but quickly restored. It comprises a corridor, meeting room, and chapel, with a mill and a number of hermitages cut into the rock nearby.

The Monastery of Our Lady of Hawqa[edit]
Saydet Hawqa is situated at an altitude of 1150m between Qannubin and Qozhaya Monasteries, at the base of an enormous cave. It was founded in the late 13th century by villagers from Hawqa. The hermitage appears to have been located on a wide platform at mid-level, where there is a water reservoir fed by channels. The upper level, only accessible by ladder, is a cave some 47m long, where the wealth of medieval pottery and arrowheads that have been found suggests its use as a refuge. Traces of fortifications have also been found in the Aassi Hauqqa (cave) at 1170m altitude. Archaeological finds show that this cave was in use in Palaeolithic, Roman, and medieval times.

The Monastery of Mar Sarkis[edit]

Monastery of Saints Sarkis & Bakhos, Ehden
The Monastery of Mar Sarkis, also called Ras Al Nahr, overlooks Ehden, Kfarsghab, Bane and Hadath El Jebbeh. Given its exceptional location overlooking the valley at an altitude of 1500m, the monastery is called the Watchful Eye of Qadisha. It is dedicated to Saints Sarkis and Bakhos (Saints Sergius and Bacchus). The name Ras Al Nahrmeans the top of the river as it is in the vicinity of the Mar Sarkis source, the main contributor to the Qlaynsieh River which joins the Qannubin River in the valley.

The first church of Saints Sarkis and Bakhos was built in the mid 8th Century A.D. on the ruins of a Canaanite temple dedicated to a god of agriculture. Next to it, another church dedicated to Our Lady was constructed in 1198 A.D. Several buildings were added from 1404 till 1690, when Patriarch Estephan Douaihy restored part of the buildings.

The Monastery of Mar Lishaa[edit]

The monastery of Mar Elisha is perched on the cliff.
Mar Lishaa or St Elisha (دير مار ﺃليشع), mentioned first in the 14th century, is shared by two communities, a Maronite solitary order and the Barefoot Carmelite order. It consists of three or four small cells, a refectory, and some offices; the communal church includes four chapels cut into the rock-face.
so care to explain to me what you meant by "@manifesto see what i mean they believe?" because really the spirit with which you wrongly deride others on a topic where you are wrong on so many levels, leaves you deserving of a very harsh reply. which i will refrain from because it is not my intention to destroy or vex you. just stick to reality if you do not mind and enough falsification.
 

Mighty Goat

Legendary Member
Orange Room Supporter
regardless of the historical narrative? LOL right... let us take your narrative over recorded history, sure, why not, mrs PhD and academic researcher. so let us take only the quadisha valley as an example to examine your improvised theory

The Qannubin Monastery[edit]
The Qannubin Monastery (Deir Qannubin (دير قنوبين)), is on the northeast side of the Qadisha Valley. It is the oldest of the Maronite monasteries; although its foundation is often attributed to the Emperor Theodosius the Great in 375AD, it is more likely that it was established by a disciple of St Theodosius the Cenobite. For the most part it is cut into the rock cliff side - monastic cells, church, cloister, and accommodation for travelers.

Qannubin used to be the See of the Maronite Patriarch.

The Monastery of St Anthony of Qozhaya[edit]

Monastery of Qozhaya - July 2003
The Monastery of Qozhaya (Deir Mar Antonios Qozhaya (دير مارانطﻮنيوﺱ ﻗﺰحيا)) sits on the opposite flank of the Qadisha from Qannubin Monastery. Tradition has its foundation in the 4th century by St Hilarion, in honour of the Egyptian anchorite, St Anthony the Great, though the earliest documentary records date back only to around 1000AD. It was destroyed in the 16th century but quickly restored. It comprises a corridor, meeting room, and chapel, with a mill and a number of hermitages cut into the rock nearby.

The Monastery of Our Lady of Hawqa[edit]
Saydet Hawqa is situated at an altitude of 1150m between Qannubin and Qozhaya Monasteries, at the base of an enormous cave. It was founded in the late 13th century by villagers from Hawqa. The hermitage appears to have been located on a wide platform at mid-level, where there is a water reservoir fed by channels. The upper level, only accessible by ladder, is a cave some 47m long, where the wealth of medieval pottery and arrowheads that have been found suggests its use as a refuge. Traces of fortifications have also been found in the Aassi Hauqqa (cave) at 1170m altitude. Archaeological finds show that this cave was in use in Palaeolithic, Roman, and medieval times.

The Monastery of Mar Sarkis[edit]

Monastery of Saints Sarkis & Bakhos, Ehden
The Monastery of Mar Sarkis, also called Ras Al Nahr, overlooks Ehden, Kfarsghab, Bane and Hadath El Jebbeh. Given its exceptional location overlooking the valley at an altitude of 1500m, the monastery is called the Watchful Eye of Qadisha. It is dedicated to Saints Sarkis and Bakhos (Saints Sergius and Bacchus). The name Ras Al Nahrmeans the top of the river as it is in the vicinity of the Mar Sarkis source, the main contributor to the Qlaynsieh River which joins the Qannubin River in the valley.

The first church of Saints Sarkis and Bakhos was built in the mid 8th Century A.D. on the ruins of a Canaanite temple dedicated to a god of agriculture. Next to it, another church dedicated to Our Lady was constructed in 1198 A.D. Several buildings were added from 1404 till 1690, when Patriarch Estephan Douaihy restored part of the buildings.

The Monastery of Mar Lishaa[edit]

The monastery of Mar Elisha is perched on the cliff.
Mar Lishaa or St Elisha (دير مار ﺃليشع), mentioned first in the 14th century, is shared by two communities, a Maronite solitary order and the Barefoot Carmelite order. It consists of three or four small cells, a refectory, and some offices; the communal church includes four chapels cut into the rock-face.
so care to explain to me what you meant by "@manifesto see what i mean they believe?" because really the spirit with which you wrongly deride others on a topic where you are wrong on so many levels, leaves you deserving of a very harsh reply. which i will refrain from because it is not my intention to destroy or vex you. just stick to reality if you do not mind and enough falsification.

Great stuff, tells you how new sects build their orders on the ruins of old temples to wipe the civilization that preceded them. This is what I read in here about some of these buildings that preexisted the Maronites and even Christianity.
 

Manifesto

Legendary Member
Orange Room Supporter
@Dark Angel

Last time I checked Qannoubine and Ehden were not located in Keserwan.

My argument was that there was no Maronite presence in Keserwan prior to 1600.
 

Dark Angel

Legendary Member
@Genius there is no evidence of Christian presence in Keserwan prior to 1,600.

من الادلة تشير الى أن الوجود الشيعي كان كثيفاً في كسروان عند تعرضه للحملات المملوكية في مستهل القرن الرابع عشر، ويؤكد ذلك عدد الجنود الذين شاركوا في الهجوم العام 1305. لم يعد الوجود الشيعي الغالب في كسروان موضوع خلاف بعد ظهور الدراسات الحديثة وخصوصاً تلك التي اعتمدت على السجلات العثمانية الرسمية أو ما يسمى الدفتر خانة. وهي تظهر أن هذه المنطقة كانت عند الفتح العثماني وبقيت حتى عهد متأخر منطقة ذات اكثرية شيعية يقتصر سكان قراها الخمس الكبرى على الشيعة وهي القليعات وفيطرون وحراجل وبقعاتا ومجدل حابس، بينما تشاركهم أقليات من المسيحيين والسنة والدروز في قرى اخرى. وبقي الطابع الشيعي غالبا في كسروان بعد الفتح العثماني، في حين لم يتجاوز الموارنة نهر ابرهيم حتى ذلك الوقت. ويشير المطران يوسف دريان الى أنه ليس هناك بين أديرة كسروان العديدة دير واحد يسبق عهده القرن السابع عشر، وليس ثمة ذكر لماروني واحد أصله من كسروان قبل القرن السادس عشر. وإذا جاء ذكر الموارنة في ما كتبه الصليبيون فانهم لا يذكرونهم إلاّ في البلاد الواقعة بين طرابلس وجبيل، أما جنوب نهر ابرهيم فلا نرى لهم فيه أثرا. تكاثر الموارنة في كسروان على مر الاعوام بفعل الهجرة وطلب العمل والهرب من الاضطهاد السياسي والديني، وقد وجدوا في رعاية حكامهم الشيعة حرية دينية مطلقة. وبحسب ما يؤكده الأب لامانس فإن كسروان لم تكن من المقاطعات التي أوى اليها الموارنة قبل القرن الخامس عشر، وجميع السكان الذين سكنوا هذه المنطقة قبل هذا العهد كانوا من المتاولة

سعدون حمادة: الشيعة هم السكان الأصليون لكسروان وجبيل
يذكر الدكتور الصليبي ما جاء على لسان ابن القلاعي، المؤرخ الماروني في الحقبة الأخيرة من العهد المملوكي، من أن الدمار الذي طال كسروان شمل أيضاً كنائس وأديرة للموارنة. وفي مراجع أخرى، أن حملة المماليك أدت إلى تهجير العلويين من أهلها إلى منطقة اللاذقية (كرباج وفارغ، 1997: 34). وقد عوّل المماليك على قبائل تركمانية سنيّة لحفظ الأمن فيها. يشير الدكتور الصليبي إلى مراجع أوضحت أن أهل كسروان شيعة وموارنة عادوا إليها بعد استتباب الأمن (الصليبي، 1979: 144). ويشير في موضع آخر إلى العلاقة الجيدة التي ربطت في وقت لاحق آل عساف التركمان بالموارنة، وجعلتهم يستقدمونهم لملء الفراغ في كسروان (الصليبي، 1970: 25). وقد تلا استعادة السلطان قلاوون لطرابلس تحوّل سكان الضنية وعكار إلى المذهب السنّي (الصليبي، 1965: 19).

there are no monasteries dating back to before the 17th century because they were all destroyed by the mamaliks.
 

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يذكر الدكتور الصليبي ما جاء على لسان ابن القلاعي

there are no monasteries dating back to before the 17th century because they were all destroyed by the mamaliks.


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