Great Lebanon 100 years commemoration and the debate about Lebanon ?? History

Great Lebanon creation by the Maronite and the French Crusader

  • Was a historical mistake

    Votes: 7 58.3%
  • Was a great success

    Votes: 0 0.0%
  • Was moderate success

    Votes: 2 16.7%
  • A scandal some Sunnis defend the Ottoman State and criticize the President

    Votes: 5 41.7%
  • The State was mistaken to abrogate 7 May Martyrs Day Holiday

    Votes: 2 16.7%
  • Lebanon is mainly a Phoenician History

    Votes: 1 8.3%
  • Lebanon is an Arab Country

    Votes: 2 16.7%
  • Lebanon civilization is Based on Western and Christians Values

    Votes: 1 8.3%
  • Lebanon is both Arabic and Phoenician

    Votes: 2 16.7%
  • Islam conquest of Middle East was a disaster

    Votes: 3 25.0%
  • Thank God Mount Lebanon protected the Christians from Muslim Oppression

    Votes: 2 16.7%
  • Thank God Lebanon is different than all Muslim or Arab Countries with its Christians face

    Votes: 3 25.0%
  • Muslim Conquest of the Middle East was good

    Votes: 1 8.3%
  • Muslim should dominate Lebanon

    Votes: 0 0.0%
  • Friday should replace Saturday as a Holiday like all Muslim Countries

    Votes: 2 16.7%

  • Total voters
    12
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علم تركيا في الطريق الجديدة














2019 - أيلول - 09


"ليبانون ديبايت"

أفاد مندوب موقع "ليبانون ديبايت" عن رفع صورة للعلم التركي في أحد شوارع منطقة طريق الجديدة - بيروت (المحسوبة سياسياً على تيار المستقبل).

اعلان


وتوترت العلاقات اللبنانية التركية بعدما ردت وزارة الخارجية التركية على تصريحات رئيس الجمهورية العماد ميشال عون خلال القاء كلمته بمناسبة الذكرى المئوية لتأسيس لبنان، معتبرة إياها "إساءة سافرة للدولة العثمانية"، مؤكدةً، أنّ التصريحات "مؤسفة للغاية وغير مسؤولة".

وتبعًا لذلك، استدعت وزارة الخارجية اللبنانية، الثلاثاء الماضي، السفير التركي لدى لبنان هاكان تشاكل، على خلفية البيان الذي أصدرته الخارجية التركية ردًا على رئيس الجمهورية.

كما واستدعت وزارة الخارجية التركية الخميس، السفير اللبناني في أنقرة غسان المعلّم، على خلفية "عمل استفزازي" تعرّضت له السفارة التركية في بير
 
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    2019
    رجوعُ جمال باشا






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    ما إن تحدّثَ رئيسُ الجمهوريّةِ عن «إرهابِ الإمبراطوريّةِ العُثمانيّة في لبنان»، حتّى انْبرَت فئاتٌ سياسيّةٌ ودينيّةٌ تنتقدُه وتُدافع عن الاحتلالِ العُثمانيّ كأنّها تَحِنُّ إلى الإنكشاريّةِ والسُكمانِ والسَنْجَقيّاتِ والولايات، وإلى «أَشْمِل»... لست معنيًّا بتأثيرِ موقفِ الرئيس عون من العُثمانيّين على العَلاقاتِ اللبنانيّةِ/التركيّة التي نَحرِصُ عليها، بل بفَضْحِه العَلاقاتِ بين اللبنانيّين. صدمةٌ كبيرةٌ أنْ نَجد لبنانيّين، وقد مرَّت مئةُ سنةٍ على تحرُّرِهم، يَنتفِضون غَيارى على السلطنةِ العُثمانيّةِ التي احتلَّت لبنان مدّةَ 400 سنةٍ. كيف لهؤلاءِ الأشخاصِ أنْ يُحبّوا جلّاديهم ومُحتليّهم على حسابِ الوطن؟ اللَّهمَّ إلّا إذا كانوا ودائعَ عثمانيّة.
    أفْهمُ، ولو بصعوبةٍ، أن نختلفَ على الانتدابِ الفرنسيِّ، فالبعضُ كان يَعتبره رعايةً دوليّةً؛ وعلى الوجودِ الفلسطينيّ، فالبعضُ كان يَعتبره حالةَ لجوء؛ وعلى الاحتلالِ السوريِّ، فالبعضُ كان يَعتبره وصايةً شرعيّةً؛ وعلى القوميّةِ السوريّةِ، فالبعضُ يَعتبرُها هلالَ الحضارة؛ وعلى القوميّةِ العربيّةِ، فالبعضُ يَعتبرها «جسدَ الإسلام»... لكنْ أن نَختلفَ على ظلمِ العثمانيّين، فيَعني أنْ لم يَبقَ شيءٌ نتّفقُ عليه.
    هذه طعنةٌ لا لشهداءِ تلك الأزمنةِ السوداءِ فقط، بل للشراكةِ الوطنيّة. وإذا الّذين تَسابقوا لتَبييضِ صفحةِ العثمانيّين لا يُمثّلون بيئتَهم، فلْيبُادر مَن يُمثِّلون تلك البيئةِ إلى إسماعِ صوتِ الوطنيّة، والوفاءِ للشهداء، والولاءِ للبنانَ دون سواه.
    هل كان المسيحيّون هاجموا رئيسَ وزراءِ لبنان لو انتقدَ المرحلةَ الصليبيّةَ أو إيطاليا مركزَ دولةِ الفاتيكان؟ ننتقدُ شيعةَ حزبِ الله لأنهم يناصرون الفرسَ، فلِمَ البعضُ يَصونُ عِرضَ العُثمانيّين وقد انتَهكوا أعراضَنا؟ هل استُبْدلتُ العروبةُ بـــ«العَثْمنة»؟ قد نَجد مبرِّرًا لو حَفَظتم ذكرى إمبراطوريّةٍ عربيّةٍ نقلت إلينا الحضارةَ والحداثة، أما أن تدافعوا عن إمبراطوريّةٍ عُثمانيّةٍ شكَّلت مع المماليك، في التاريخِ العربيِّ ـــ الإسلاميِّ، عصرَ الانحطاطِ الذي امتدَّ من سنةِ 1258، تاريخِ سقوطِ بغداد، حتّى سنةِ 1798، تاريخِ حملةِ نابليون على مصر، فهذه سقطةٌ عظمى. لقد احتقرَت السلطنةُ العُثمانيّةُ العرب، وأذَلَّت خليفةَ المسلمين «المتوكِّلَ على الله»، وقَهَرت اللبنانيّين وقَتلت منهم مئاتَ الآلاف.
    هل كان يَجدُر برئيسِ دولةِ لبنان أن يَصِفَ مرحلةَ الاحتلالِ العُثمانيِّ بالفترةِ الذهبيّة؟ بزمنِ الحريّةِ والوردِ الجُوري؟ وماذا عن اجتياحِ العثمانيّين جبلَ لبنان سبعَ مرّاتٍ في حِقْبةِ المعنيّين سنواتِ 1523 و1544 و1585 و1607 و1613 و1614 و1633؟ وماذا عن سَحقِ حركةِ تحرّرِ الأميرِ فخر الدّين الثاني ثمَّ قتلِه سنةَ 1635؟ وماذا عن اضطهادِ والي عكا أحمد باشا الجزّار الشِهابيّين؟ وماذا عن الإيقاعِ بين المسيحيّين والدروزِ والمشاركةِ في مذابحِ 1840 و1842 و1845 و1860؟ وماذا عن مجازرِ جمال باشا ومجاعةِ الجبل في الحربِ العالميّةِ الأولى؟ وماذا عن شهداءِ ساحةِ الشهداء؟ ألغيتُم عيدَهم في 06 أيار ـــ ويا للعار ـــ لكنّكم لا تستطيعون إلغاءَ الشهداء.

    زعمَ أحدُهم أنَّ السلطنةَ العثمانيّةَ كانت مركزَ الخِلافةِ الإسلاميّةِ ولا يجوز، بالتالي، التهجُّمُ عليها. هذا دفاعٌ أسوأُ من تَهجُّم، إذ هو يُحمِّلُ الخلافةَ مسؤوليّةَ ما اقترفَه العثمانيّون فيما هي منه بَراء. سلطنةُ المماليك كانت مركزَ الخِلافةِ أيضًا، فهل هذا التلازمُ يُحلِّل التفسيرات التكفيريّةَ «لابْن تيميّة» (وُلِد في تركيا)، وحملاتِ المماليك على جبالِ لبنان من الشمال حتّى الشوف مرورًا بكسروان بين سنتي 1292 و1310 لقتلِ الدروزِ والشيعةِ والموارنة؟ وهل يُحلِّلُ لهم حرقَ البطريركِ المارونيِّ لوقا البَنْهَراني (1283) والبطريركِ جبرائيل الحُجولاوي (1367)؟
    هناك التباسٌ كبيرٌ حول عَلاقةِ السلطنةِ العُثمانيّةِ بالخِلافةِ الإسلاميّة العربيّة. أثناءَ معركةِ «مرج دابق» سنةَ 1516، قَبَض السلطانُ العُثمانيُّ، سليم الأوَّل، على الخليفةِ «المتوكِّلِ على الله» واصطحَبَه إلى مِصر ثمَّ إلى إسطنبول ونفاه إلى الرِيفِ التركيِّ البعيد. وقُبَيلَ نَفْيه، انتزع منه البُرْدَةَ (مِعطفُ الخُلفاء) والذخائرَ النَبَويّةَ (العصا والحِذاءُ والخاتِمُ وخُصْلةٌ من الشَعر). وبعد مَوتِ السلطانِ والخليفة، حَصَلَ خِلافٌ حولَ مصيرِ الخِلافةِ: العُثمانيّون ادّعوا أنَّ المُتوَكّلَ تنازلَ عنها للسلطانِ سليم الأوّل، والمسلمون العرب نَفوا ذلك ومؤرِّخو تلك الحِقبةِ لم يَجزُموا به. أمّا أهلُ الفِقه فاعتبَروا أنَّ تَنازلاً غيرُ مُرْفَقٍ بالبَيْعَة لَهُوَ موضوعُ طَعْن.
    سواءٌ أكانت السلطنةُ العثمانيّةُ مركزَ الخِلافةِ الإسلاميّةِ أم لا، إنها دولةُ الاحتلالِ والمذابحِ في لبنان. وحين نتكلّمُ عن السلطنةِ لا نعني تركيا اليوم. فالجمهوريّةُ التركيّةُ الحاليّة ـــ على الأقل حتى مجيءِ أردوغان ـــ هي وريثةُ تركيا أتاتورك وليس تركيا العثمانيّة. واستنادًا إلى هذه القَطيعةِ الوراثيّةِ رَفضت تركيا الاعترافَ بمسؤوليّتِها عن الإبادةِ الأرمنيّةِ سنةَ 1915.
    وأصلًا، إنَّ لبنان يتعاطى مع دولةِ تركيا الجديدةِ كدولةٍ صديقةٍ ويَعتبر عَلاقاتِه معها ضروريّةً ومفيدةً وتُقدّمُ له خِياراتٍ استراتيجيّةً. لذلك لا يُفترَض بحكومةِ تركيا أنْ «يأخُذَ على خاطرِها» إذا انتقدْنا السلطنةَ العثمانية. هل تَغضَب حكومةُ ألمانيا حين يُندّدُ الأوروبيّون بألمانيا النازيّة؟ لا تستطيعُ السلْطناتُ والأنظمةُ القمعيّةُ أن تَضْطهدَ الشعوبَ وتنتظرَ منهم الشكرَ والعِرفان.
    يبقى أنَّ هذا السجالَ كشف، مرّةً أخرى، هُزالَ الوِحدةِ الوطنيّةِ اللبنانيّة وأضافَ حُجّةً جديدةً إلى مِلفِّ المشكِّكين بجدّيةِ ولاءِ جميع اللبنانيّين للبنان. سؤالٌ أخير: هل مسموحٌ أنْ ننتقدَ إسرائيل من دونِ أنْ نُغيظَ أيَّ فريقٍ لبنانيّ؟
    * * * *
    بمناسبةِ إطلاقِ برنامج مئويّةِ «لبنان الكبير»، قال الرئيس عون في 31 آب الماضي إنَّ «كلَّ محاولات التحرّر من النِير العُثماني كانت تقابَل بالعنفِ والقتل وإذكاءِ الفِتن الطائفيّة، وإنَّ إرهابَ الدولةِ الذي مارسه العُثمانيّون على اللبنانيّين، خاصّةً خلال الحربِ العالميّةِ الأولى، أوْدى بمئاتِ آلافِ الضحايا، ما بين المجاعةِ والتجنيدِ والسُّخْرة».
     
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    he State of Greater Lebanon (Arabic: دولة لبنان الكبير‎ Dawlat Lubnān al-Kabīr; French: État du Grand Liban) was a state declared on 1 September 1920, which became the Lebanese Republic (Arabic: الجمهورية اللبنانية‎ al-Jumhūrīyah al-Lubnānīyah; French: République libanaise) in May 1926, and is the predecessor of modern Lebanon.





































































    State of Greater Lebanon
    (1920–1926)
    État du Grand Liban
    دولة لبنان الكبيرLebanese Republic
    (1926–1943)
    République libanaise
    الجمهورية اللبنانية
    1920–1943
    Flag of Lebanon
    Flag
    Location of Greater Lebanon (green) within the Mandate of Syria and Lebanon.
    Location of Greater Lebanon (green) within the Mandate of Syria and Lebanon.
    Status Mandate of the French Third Republic
    Capital Beirut
    Common languages Arabic
    French
    English
    Armenian
    Religion
    Christianity
    Islam
    Historical era Interwar period
    • Declared under mandate 1920
    • Independence 1943
    Currency Syrian pound (1920–39)
    Lebanese pound (1939–1943)
    ISO 3166 code LB











    Preceded by
    Succeeded by





    Occupied Enemy Territory Administration





    Lebanon

    The state was declared on 1 September 1920, following Decree 318 of 31 August 1920,[1] as a League of Nations Mandate under the proposed terms of the French Mandate for Syria and Lebanonwhich was to be ratified in 1923. When the Ottoman Empire was formally split up by the Treaty of Sèvresin 1920, it was decided that four of its territories in the Middle East should be League of Nations mandates temporarily governed by the United Kingdom and France on behalf of the League. The British were given Palestine and Iraq, while the French were given a mandate over Syria and Lebanon.
    General Gouraud proclaimed the establishment of the state with its present boundaries after splitting few Syrian villages on the southern and western borders with Lebanon and adding them to Lebanon and with Beirut as its capital.[2] The new territorywas granted a flag, merging the French flag with the Lebanese cedar.


    BackgroundEdit

    Name and ConceptionEdit

    Map of Greater Lebanon's borders compared with the border of the previous territory of the Mount Lebanon Mutasarrifate (black dashed line), overlaid on a map of modern-day religious groups distribution.
    The term Greater Lebanon alludes to the almost doubling of the size of the Mount Lebanon Mutasarrifate, the existing former autonomous region, as a result of the incorporation of the former Ottoman districts of Tripoli and Sidon as well as the Bekaa Valley. The Mutasarrifate had been established in 1861 to protect the local Christian population by the European powers under the terms of the Règlement Organique. The term, in French "Le Grand Liban", was first used by the Lebanese intellectuals Bulus Nujaym and Albert Naccache, during the buildup to the 1919 Paris Peace Conference.[3]
    Nujaym was building on his widely read 1908 work La question du Liban, a 550-page analysis which was to become the foundation for arguments in favor of a Greater Lebanon.[4] The work argued that a significant extension of Lebanon's boundaries was required for economic success.[4] The boundaries suggested by Nujaym as representing the "Liban de la grande époque" were drawn from the map of the 1860-64 French expedition, which has been cited as an example of a modern map having "predicted the nation instead of just recording it".[5]
    Paris Peace ConferenceEdit
    On October 27, 1919, the Lebanese delegation led by Maronite Patriarch Elias Peter Hoayek presented the Lebanese aspirations in a memorandum to the Paris Peace Conference. This included a significant extension of the frontiers of the Lebanon Mutasarrifate,[6] arguing that the additional areas constituted natural parts of Lebanon, despite the fact that the Christian community would not be a clear majority in such an enlarged state.[6] The quest for the annexation of agricultural lands in the Bekaa and Akkar was fueled by existential fears following the death of nearly half of the Mount Lebanon Mutasarrifate population in the Great Famine; the Maronite church and the secular leaders sought a state that could better provide for its people.[7] The areas to be added to the Mutasarrifate included the coastal towns of Beirut, Tripoli, Sidon and Tyre and their respective hinterlands, all of which belonged to the Beirut Vilayet, together with four Kazas of the Syria Vilayet (Baalbek, the Bekaa, Rashaya and Hasbaya).[6]


    ProclamationEdit


    Arrete no 318 creating "l'Etat du Grand Liban"
    Following the peace conference, the French were awarded the French Mandate for Syria and the Lebanon, under which the definition of Lebanon was still to be set by the French. Most of the territory was controlled the Occupied Enemy Territory Administration, with the remainder controlled for a short time by the Arab Kingdom of Syria until the latter's defeat in July 1920. Following the decisive Battle of Maysalun, Lebanese Maronites openly celebrated the Arab defeat.[8]
    On August 24, 1920, French Prime Minister Alexandre Millerand wrote to Archbishop Khoury: "Your country's claims on the Bekaa, that you have recalled for me, have been granted. On instructions from the French government, General Gouraud has proclaimed at Zahle's Grand Kadri Hotel, the incorporation into Lebanon of the territory that extends up to the summit of the Anti-Lebanon range and of Hermon. This is the Greater Lebanon that France wishes to form to assure your country of its natural borders."


    Later historyEdit


    Constitution of the Lebanese Republic
    Lebanon gained its independence in 1943 and the French left the country in 1946.


    GovernmentEdit

    The first Lebanese constitution was promulgated on May 23, 1926, and subsequently amended several times. Modeled after that of the French Third Republic, it provided for a bicameral parliament with Chamber of Deputies and a Senate (although the latter was eventually dropped), a President, and a Council of Ministers, or cabinet. The president was to be elected by the Chamber of Deputies for one six-year term and could not be reelected until a six-year period had elapsed; deputies were to be popularly elected along confessional lines.

    The first Lebanese flag, hand-drawn and signed by the deputies of the Lebanese parliament, 11 November 1943.
    A custom of selecting major political officers, as well as top ranks within the public administration, according to the proportion of the principal sects in the population was strengthened during this period. Thus, for example, the president ought to be a Maronite Christian, the prime minister a Sunni Muslim, and the speaker of the Chamber of Deputies a Shia Muslim. A Greek Orthodox and a Druze would always be present in the cabinet. This practice increased sectarian tension by providing excessive power to the Maronite president (such as the ability to choose the prime minister), and hindered the formation of a Lebanese national identity.[9]Theoretically, the Chamber of Deputies performed the legislative function, but in fact bills were prepared by the executive and submitted to the Chamber of Deputies, which passed them virtually without exception. Under the Constitution, the French high commissioner still exercised supreme power, an arrangement that initially brought objections from the Lebanese nationalists. Nevertheless, Charles Debbas, a Greek Orthodox, was elected the first president of Lebanon three days after the adoption of the Constitution.
    At the end of Debbas's first term in 1932, Bishara al-Khuri and Émile Eddé competed for the office of president, thus dividing the Chamber of Deputies. To break the deadlock, some deputies suggested Shaykh Muhammad al Jisr, who was chairman of the Council of Ministers and the Muslim leader of Tripoli, as a compromise candidate. However, French high commissioner Henri Ponsot suspended the constitution on May 9, 1932, and extended the term of Debbas for one year; in this way he prevented the election of a Muslim as president. Dissatisfied with Ponsot's conduct, the French authorities replaced him with Comte Damien de Martel, who, on January 30, 1934, appointed Habib Pacha Es-Saad as president for a one-year term (later extended for an additional year).
    Émile Eddé was elected president on January 30, 1936. A year later, he partially reestablished the Constitution of 1926 and proceeded to hold elections for the Chamber of Deputies. However, the Constitution was again suspended by the French high commissioner in September 1939, at the outbreak of World War II.

    A Greater Lebanon five-piastre coin, 1924.
    EducationEdit
    The French mandate promoted French culture and the French language in education. English was also common in higher education. Foreign mission schools were the main institutions for education, providing higher standards of education than under Ottoman administration, with no state-run system.[9]


    See also
     
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    Lebanon should have remained like this with Beirut and other Christians regions
    Mutasarrifate


    The Mount Lebanon Mutasarrifate[3][4][5] (Arabic: متصرفية جبل لبنان‎; Turkish: Cebel-i Lübnan Mutasarrıflığı) was one of the Ottoman Empire's subdivisions following the Tanzimat reform. After 1861 there existed an autonomous Mount Lebanon with a Christian mutasarrıf, which had been created as a homeland for the Maronites under European diplomatic pressure following the 1860 massacres.































































    Mount Lebanon Mutasarrifate
    Cebel-i Lübnan Mutasarrıflığı
    Mutasarrifate of the Ottoman Empire







    1861–1918
    Location of Mount Lebanon
    The Mutasarrifate in 1914
    Capital Deir el Qamar[1]
    History
    Established 1861
    French occupation 1918
    Population
    1870[2] 110,000
    Today part of
    Lebanon


    BackgroundEdit

    1840 Mount Lebanon conflictEdit
    As the Ottoman Empire began to decline, the administrative structure came under pressure. Following continued animosity and fighting between the Maronites and the Druze, representatives of the European powers proposed to Sultan Abdülmecid Ithat the Lebanon be partitioned into Christian and Druze sections. The Sublime Porte was finally compelled to relinquish its plans for the direct rule of the Lebanon, and on December 7, 1842, the sultan adopted prince Metternich's proposal and asked Assad Pasha, the governor (wali) of Beirut, to divide the Mount Lebanon, into two districts: a northern district under a Christian Kaymakam and a southern district under a Druze Kaymakam, both chosen among tribal leaders. Both officials were to report to the governor of Sidon, who resided in Beirut.[6][7]
    1860 civil warEdit
    On May 22, 1860, a small group of Maronites fired on a group of Druze at the entrance to Beirut[citation needed], killing one and wounding two. This sparked a torrent of violence which swept through Lebanon. In a mere three days, from May 29 to 31, 60 villages were destroyed in the vicinity of Beirut.[6] 33 Christians and 48 Druze were killed.[8]By June the disturbances had spread to the “mixed” neighbourhoods of southern Lebanon and the Anti Lebanon, to Sidon, Hasbaya, Rashaya, Deir el Qamar, and Zahlé. The Druze peasants laid siege to Catholic monasteries and missions, burnt them, and killed the monks.[6] France intervened on behalf of the local Christian population and Britain on behalf of the Druze after the massacres, in which over 10,000 Christians were killed.[9][10]

    HistoryEdit

    Creation of the MutasarrifateEdit
    On 5 September 1860, an international commission composed of France, Britain, Austria, Prussia, Russiaand the Ottoman Empire met to investigate the causes of the events of 1860 and to recommend a new administrative and judicial system for Lebanon that would prevent the recurrence of such events. In the 1861 "Règlement Organique", Mount Lebanon was preliminarily separated from Syria and reunited under a non-Lebanese Christian mutasarrıf(governor) appointed by the Ottoman sultan, with the approval of the European powers. Mount Lebanon became a semi-autonomous mutasarrifate.[11][12] In September 1864, the statute became permanent.[11][13][14] The mutasarrıf was to be assisted by an administrative council of twelve members from the various religious communities in Lebanon. Each of the six religious groups inhabiting the Lebanon (Maronites, Druzes, Sunni, Shi’a, Greek Orthodox and Melkite) elected two members to the council.[10][11]
    This Mutasarrifate system lasted from 1861 until 1918,[15] although it was de facto abolished by Djemal Pasha (one of the "Three Pashas" of the World War I-era Ottoman leadership) in 1915, after which he appointed his own governors.
    NamingEdit
    The members of the international commission researched many names for the new administrative division and its governor. Many titles were considered; Emir (أمير) was quickly refuted because it was offensive to the Ottoman Porte (Emir being a title of the Ottoman Sultan) and was reminiscent of the Emirate system that the Ottomans fought to abolish. Vali (والي) also fell from consideration because the commission members wanted to convey the importance of the rank of the new title which was above than to that of the Ottoman governors of nearby vilayets;[citation needed]"Governor" (حاكم) was also abandoned because they thought the title was commonplace and widespread. The commission members also ruminated over the title of "President" (رئيس جمهورية) but the designation was not approved by the Ottoman government. After two weeks of deliberation, the French term plénipotentiaire was agreed upon and its Turkish translation mutasarrıfwas adopted as the new title for the governor and for the division, which was dubbed in Arabic as the mutasarrifiyah of Mount Lebanon.[16]

    List of mutasarrifsEdit

    Eight mutasarrifs were appointed and ruled according to the basic mutasarrifate regulation that was issued in 1861 then modified by the 1864 reform. These were:
































































    Period Known name Birth name Confession / Religion Notes
    1861–1868 Davud Pasha Garabet Artin Davoudian Armenian Catholic Ottoman Armenian from Istanbul
    1868–1873 Franko Pasha Nasri Franco Coussa Greek Catholic (Melkite) Syrian from Aleppo
    1873–1883 Rüstem Pasha Rüstem Mariani Roman Catholic Italian from Florence, naturalized Ottoman citizen
    1883–1892 Wassa Pasha Pashko Vasa Shkodrani Albanian Catholic Albanian from Shkodër
    1892–1902 Naoum Pasha Naum Coussa Greek Catholic (Melkite) Syrian, stepson of second mutassarrif Nasri Franco Coussa (Franko Pasha)
    1902–1907 Muzaffer Pasha Ladislas Czaykowski Roman Catholic Polish
    1907–1912 Yusuf Pasha Youssef Coussa Greek Catholic (Melkite) Syrian, son of second mutassarrif Nasri Franco Coussa (Franko Pasha)
    1912–1915 Ohannes Pasha Ohannes Kouyoumdjian Armenian Catholic Ottoman Armenian

    The mnemonic word "DaFRuWNaMYO" (in Arabic, دفرونميا) helped school children memorize the name of the mutasarrifs.
    List of GovernorsEdit
    When the First World War broke out in 1914, Djemal Pasha occupied Mount Lebanon militarily and revoked the mutasarrifate system. He appointed the mutasarrifs during this period. Those governors were:

    DemographicsEdit


    Territory of the Mutassarifate over a map of the current demographics of Lebanon
    The total population in 1895 was estimated as 399,530, with 80,234 (20.1%) Muslims and 319,296 (79.9%) Christians.[17] In 1913, the total population was estimated as 414,747, with 85,232 (20.6%) Muslims and 329,482 (79.4%) Christians.[17]
    1895 and 1913 censusesEdit
    Source:[17]

































































    Religion 1895 % 1913 %
    Sunni 13,576 3.5 14,529 3.6
    Shia 16,846 4.3 23,413 5.5
    Druze 49,812 12.5 47,290 11.3
    Maronite 229,680 57.5 242,308 58.3
    Greek Catholic 34,472 8.5 31,936 7.7
    Greek Orthodox 54,208 13.5 52,536 12.8
    Other Christians
    (mainly Protestants)
    936 0.3 2,882 0.7
    Total population 399,530 100 414,747 100


    Gallery
     
    Ice Tea

    Ice Tea

    Active Member
    Biggest mistake EVER. Lebanon was supposed to be only historical Lebanon aka Mount Lebanon and surrounding Christian areas like Zahle, Jezzine, which had an 80% Christian population at the time.

    The plan was for Lebanon to be a CHRISTIAN country, unfortunately after the famine imposed by the Ottomans against the Christians, the patriarch thought we would be too isolated and thought we needed more farming land. So he convinced the French to annex the backwards Muslim areas of South, Bekaa and Tripoli, creating the infamous Greater Lebanon, which decreased the Christian share of the population to barely over 50%.

    Unfortunately the patriarch had no vision, he thought the barbaric Muslims could be kept under control. Even the French knew better, as they advised against the move. Little did he know only 15 years later the Muslims would start a civil war demanding to be part of Syria.
     
    Last edited:
    CrusaderV

    CrusaderV

    Well-Known Member
    Orange Room Supporter
    Biggest mistake EVER. Lebanon was supposed to be only historical Lebanon aka Mount Lebanon and surrounding Christian areas like Zahle, Jezzine, which had an 80% Christian population at the time.

    The plan was for Lebanon to be a CHRISTIAN country, unfortunately after the famine imposed by the Ottomans against the Christians, the patriarch thought we would be too isolated and thought we needed more farming land, so he convinced the French to annex the backwards Muslim areas of South, Bekaa and Tripoli, which decreased the Christian share of the population to barely over 50%.

    Unfortunately the patriarch had no vision, he thought the barbaric Muslims could be kept under control. Even the French knew better, as they advised against the move. Little did he know only 15 years later the Muslims would start a civil war demanding to be part of Syria.
    Clemenceau the PM of France à non believer advised him to keep Mount Lebanon with Christians regions from Syria
    Patriarch refuses ; they say he didn’t want the Syrians orthodox and Assyrians
    Major Mistake
     
    Last edited:
    CrusaderV

    CrusaderV

    Well-Known Member
    Orange Room Supporter
    Lebanon ?? should have been a small Christian Homeland without Retarded non patriotic population from right and left
     
    My Moria Moon

    My Moria Moon

    Legendary Member
    Orange Room Supporter
    علم تركيا في الطريق الجديدة














    2019 - أيلول - 09


    "ليبانون ديبايت"

    أفاد مندوب موقع "ليبانون ديبايت" عن رفع صورة للعلم التركي في أحد شوارع منطقة طريق الجديدة - بيروت (المحسوبة سياسياً على تيار المستقبل).

    اعلان


    وتوترت العلاقات اللبنانية التركية بعدما ردت وزارة الخارجية التركية على تصريحات رئيس الجمهورية العماد ميشال عون خلال القاء كلمته بمناسبة الذكرى المئوية لتأسيس لبنان، معتبرة إياها "إساءة سافرة للدولة العثمانية"، مؤكدةً، أنّ التصريحات "مؤسفة للغاية وغير مسؤولة".

    وتبعًا لذلك، استدعت وزارة الخارجية اللبنانية، الثلاثاء الماضي، السفير التركي لدى لبنان هاكان تشاكل، على خلفية البيان الذي أصدرته الخارجية التركية ردًا على رئيس الجمهورية.

    كما واستدعت وزارة الخارجية التركية الخميس، السفير اللبناني في أنقرة غسان المعلّم، على خلفية "عمل استفزازي" تعرّضت له السفارة التركية في بير
    What did Aoun say in his speech? Did he declare that 2a*ro bel dawleh el 3ethmeniyeh joined by a million other Lebanese 2y**ra? If he did, ana ma3o. Else, his speech is lame.

    As for sattouleen Tari2 el Jdideh who rose that flag, go bang your head against fat mama's ass, the Saudi kingdom, it seems it shares Aoun's opinion regarding that history episode.
    Saudi Arabia changes Ottoman ‘Empire’ to ‘occupation’ in school textbooks
     
    Ice Tea

    Ice Tea

    Active Member
    Clemenceau the PM of France à non believer advised him to keep Mount Lebanon with Christians regions from Syria
    Patriarch refuses ; they say he didn’t want the Syrians orthodox and Assyrians
    Major Mistake
    True. Had Lebanon remained only small Lebanon, it would have received a great influx of Christians from other parts of the Middle East especially Assyrians, which would have boosted even more the Christian population.

    Beirut which was supposed to be an enclave could have been annexed as well, since at the time there were no Shias there, and Sunnis would most like leave for Syria.
     
    Resign

    Resign

    Well-Known Member
    Orange Room Supporter
    Lots of historical details surrounding the creation of greater lebanon were shared in this interview

     
    Resign

    Resign

    Well-Known Member
    Orange Room Supporter
    Lebanon ?? should have been a small Christian Homeland without Retarded non patriotic population from right and left
    well Druze were still there
    And they would've probably still sided with the Palestinians against the Christians
    the Christians would be christianing and killing each other as usual
    so Probably the existence of a Muslim population especially the shiite created some balance and took some load off our backs.

    Don't you think ? (i'm just thinking out loud here :p )
     
    CrusaderV

    CrusaderV

    Well-Known Member
    Orange Room Supporter
    well Druze were still there
    And they would've probably still sided with the Palestinians against the Christians
    the Christians would be christianing and killing each other as usual
    so Probably the existence of a Muslim population especially the shiite created some balance and took some load off our backs.

    Don't you think ?
    Druze without Palestinian and other could have been managed
    Anyway let them be outside paradise
    Sure Shia / Sunnis hate is your way to survive
    Perhaps but anyway
    Christians are best alone with some enlightened Muslim
     
    CrusaderV

    CrusaderV

    Well-Known Member
    Orange Room Supporter
    well Druze were still there
    And they would've probably still sided with the Palestinians against the Christians
    the Christians would be christianing and killing each other as usual
    so Probably the existence of a Muslim population especially the shiite created some balance and took some load off our backs.

    Don't you think ? (i'm just thinking out loud here :p )
    Did you vote Bro
     
    ܐܵܠܘܼܟ̰ܵܐ

    ܐܵܠܘܼܟ̰ܵܐ

    Active Member
    Orange Room Supporter
    "Lebanon" was originally Druze Maan and Maronite Al Khazen idea. Before the Frenchies were around. But the post-facto Crusaders in Spain let us down.

    "Fakhr-al-Din was welcomed by the grand duke Cosimo II, who was his host and sponsor for the two years he spent at the court of the Medici. He spent a further three years as guest of the Spanish Viceroy of Sicily and then Naples, the Duke Osuna. Fakhr-al-Din had wished to enlist Tuscan or other European assistance in a "Crusade" to free his homeland from Ottoman domination, but was met with a refusal as Tuscany was unable to afford such an expedition. The prince eventually gave up the idea, realizing that Europe was more interested in trade with the Ottomans than in taking back the Holy Land. His stay nevertheless allowed him to witness Europe's cultural revival in the 17th century, and bring back some Renaissance ideas and architectural features. By 1618, political changes in the Ottoman sultanate had resulted in the removal of many of Fakhr-al-Din's enemies from power, allowing Fahkr-al-Din's return to Lebanon, whereupon he was able quickly to reunite all the lands of Lebanon beyond the boundaries of its mountains; and having revenge from Emir Yusuf Pasha ibn Siyfa, attacking his stronghold in Akkar, destroying his palaces and taking control of his lands, and regaining the territories he had to give up in 1613 in Sidon, Tripoli, Bekaa among others. Under his rule, printing presses were introduced and Jesuit priests and Catholic nuns encouraged to open schools throughout the land."

    Druze had hoped in the 1600s to bring more Christians in and retrieve the Holy Land from the Muslims, so that they have better connections with Europe and fight the Muslims with the crusaders. But Tuscany refused.
     
    CrusaderV

    CrusaderV

    Well-Known Member
    Orange Room Supporter
    Christians founded Lebanon
    Muslim created problems with
    Nasser
    Arafat
    Assad
    Khomeiny
    Isis
     
    CrusaderV

    CrusaderV

    Well-Known Member
    Orange Room Supporter
    "Lebanon" was originally Druze Maan and Maronite Al Khazen idea. Before the Frenchies were around. But the post-facto Crusaders in Spain let us down.

    "Fakhr-al-Din was welcomed by the grand duke Cosimo II, who was his host and sponsor for the two years he spent at the court of the Medici. He spent a further three years as guest of the Spanish Viceroy of Sicily and then Naples, the Duke Osuna. Fakhr-al-Din had wished to enlist Tuscan or other European assistance in a "Crusade" to free his homeland from Ottoman domination, but was met with a refusal as Tuscany was unable to afford such an expedition. The prince eventually gave up the idea, realizing that Europe was more interested in trade with the Ottomans than in taking back the Holy Land. His stay nevertheless allowed him to witness Europe's cultural revival in the 17th century, and bring back some Renaissance ideas and architectural features. By 1618, political changes in the Ottoman sultanate had resulted in the removal of many of Fakhr-al-Din's enemies from power, allowing Fahkr-al-Din's return to Lebanon, whereupon he was able quickly to reunite all the lands of Lebanon beyond the boundaries of its mountains; and having revenge from Emir Yusuf Pasha ibn Siyfa, attacking his stronghold in Akkar, destroying his palaces and taking control of his lands, and regaining the territories he had to give up in 1613 in Sidon, Tripoli, Bekaa among others. Under his rule, printing presses were introduced and Jesuit priests and Catholic nuns encouraged to open schools throughout the land."

    Druze had hoped in the 1600s to bring more Christians in and retrieve the Holy Land from the Muslims, so that they have better connections with Europe and fight the Muslims with the crusaders. But Tuscany refused.
    Fakhr al din a great Crusader
    He converted before his death
     
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