• Before posting an article from a specific source, check this list here to see how much the Orange Room trust it. You can also vote/change your vote based on the source track record.

Live Scientific or technological news

EuroMode

EuroMode

Active Member
Enormous crack in the ground in northern Mexico





Incredible footage has emerged showing a 26ft (8m) deep crack in the in the farmland of northwest Mexico, which stretches for over a kilometre.

The crevice which appeared last week, has disconnected Highway 26 between Hermosillo and the coast, Sky News reported.

Drivers, including farm workers, have been forced to navigate around the colossal trench.

The video showcasing the crack that in some parts is 16ft (5m) wide, was shot using a camera attached to a drone device.

It shows vehicles stopped beside the crack, while a green tractor drives away from the scene. People below the drone appear to be discussing the situation.

Geological investigators are now assessing what caused the crack, according to El Imparcial newspaper.

The civil protection unit believes the fissure may have been caused by an earthquake which hit last Sunday. But another investigation by geologists at the University of Sonora found that farmers in the area had built up a levee stream to contain rainwater which had begun to leak.

Experts believe that this may have caused an underground stream to develop, which soften the earth above it until it collapsed.

source independent
 
  • Advertisement
  • EuroMode

    EuroMode

    Active Member
    Swedish doctors cannot explain rise in hypospadias penis birth defect



    A condition which causes baby boys to be born with deformed penises is becoming more common in Sweden, for reasons unknown to scientists.

    Researchers in Sweden assessed data collected on Hypospadias between 1973 and 2009. They found that before 1990, only 4.5 boys out of every thousand had the condition known as hypospadias. But after 1990, the figure had risen to 8 per 1000 boys.

    In an attempt to explain the rise, the experts from Stockholm's Karolinksa Institute considered factors known to cause the defect, including low-birth weight, being born a twin, and parents who used IVF treatment to conceive.

    However, scientists could not link the rise to any previously known causes, and instead concluded that an unknown factor was behind the trend, The Local reported.

    Hypospadias can cause a combination of three separate problems: the meatus, the hole through which urine passes, is not being at the tip of the penis; the foreskin becoming gathered at the back of the penis with none at the front; and the penis being bent when stiff, according to the NHS.

    While hypospadias is not life threatening, it can make it difficult to urinate standing up, and can make having sex difficult. The issues are usually fixed by an operation to move the meatus, and a circumcision to remove the foreskin.

    Speaking with the Dagens Medicin newspaper, Anna Skarin Nordenvall from the institute did not reject the idea that chemicals that interfere with the hormones of mammals, known as endocrine disruptors, could be linked to the rise of hypospadias.

    According to the WHO, endocrine disruptors are mostly man-made and are found in various materials such as pesticides, metals, additives or contaminants in food, and personal care products.

    The chemicals have suspected associations with altered reproductive function in males and females, increased incidence of breast cancer, and abnormal growth patterns.

    source independent
     
    EuroMode

    EuroMode

    Active Member
    Scientists’ ability to ‘grow’ living organs boosts transplant hopes



    Scientists have created the first functional organ in a living animal from reprogrammed cells in a development that could one day be used to provide replacement organs for people with weakened immune systems.

    The thymus organ, a vital immune-system “nerve centre” near the heart, was initially grown in a laboratory from connective-tissue cells. It was then transplanted into laboratory mice, where it continued to grow and develop into a fully functional organ, the researchers said.

    It is believed to be the first time that scientists have strung several technologies together to produce a working organ from stem cells which has been transferred into a living animal. It could lead to the transplant of “made-to-order” organs grown from a patient’s own skin cells, though such a breakthrough could take another 10 years and millions of pounds of research.

    However, Paolo De Coppi, an expert on regenerative medicine at the Institute of Child Health at Great Ormond Street Hospital in London, suggested an earlier time frame is possible. “Engineering of relatively simple organs has already been adopted for a small number of patients and it is possible that within the next five years, more complex organs will be engineered for patients using specialised cells derived from stem cells in a similar way as outlined in this [study],” he said.

    “We’ve managed to produce an artificial cell type which when transplanted can form a fully organised and functional organ. This is an important step towards the goal of generating a clinically useful artificial thymus in the lab,” said Professor Clare Blackburn of the Medical Research Council Centre for Regenerative Medicine at Edinburgh University.

    The thymus is a vital part of the immune system because it produces T-cells, which constantly guard the body against invading microbes, viruses and even rogue cancer cells.

    People who lack a healthy thymus can be treated with infusions of immune cells or a transplant operation but there is a lack of donors and there are problems with matching tissue types. Being able to create thymus organs from a patient’s own cells would overcome the problem of organ rejection and supply, the researchers said.

    “The ability to grow replacement organs from cells in the lab is one of the ‘holy grails’ in regenerative medicine. But the size and complexity of lab-grown organs has so far been limited,” Professor Blackburn added.

    Rob Buckle, the head of regenerative medicine at the Medical Research Council, said: “Growing ‘replacement parts’ for damaged tissue could remove the need to transplant whole organs from one person to another, which has many drawbacks, not least a critical lack of donors.”

    The thymus organs created by the scientists were able to produce T-cells, a type of white blood cell, in the laboratory and displayed the hallmarks of a fully developed and functional organ.

    The scientists started out by taking mouse fibroblasts and inducing them with a “transcription factor” that stimulated their development into thymic epithelial cells. After mixing these cells with other thymus cells in the laboratory, rudimentary thymus organs began to develop. These were then transplanted on to the kidneys of living mice.

    source independent
     
    EuroMode

    EuroMode

    Active Member
    Chinese Scientists Are Using Soviet Technology To Create A Sub That Moves At The Speed Of Sound



    Shanghai to San Francisco in two hours flat? It’s possible, according to the Harbin Institute of Technology, which is developing a supersonic submarine that is capable of traveling at a blistering 3600 mph. Using developments in super-cavitation technology, the institute has made it possible for submarines (or torpedoes) to travel nearly at the speed of sound.

    Water creates friction that airplanes don’t have to deal with, so water vehicles haven’t been able to move as quickly as aircraft. But during the Cold War, the Soviet Union developed a technology that envelopes a submarine in an air bubble to help prevent friction. But until now, limitations have prevented the technology from being used for anything except unmanned vehicles like torpedoes.



    Chinese scientists have figured out a way around these limitations, and though the technology isn’t quite ready to go yet, it could mean insanely fast travel sometime in the future. It could also mean good news for swimmers, because the same technology could theoretically be used to reduce drag from swimsuits. On the other hand, it could also mean that underwater missiles could be a whole heck of a lot faster, too.

    source businessinsider
     
    EuroMode

    EuroMode

    Active Member
    Serotonin may not play major role in depression, new evidence suggests

    New research in mice throws into question the long-standing belief that serotonin deficiency plays a key role in depression.



    A study by scientists in the US has cast doubt on the belief that a deficiency in serotonin, a chemical messenger in the brain, is a major trigger for depression.

    The team from the John D. Dingell VA Medical Centre and Wayne State University School of Medicine in Michigan developed mice that lacked the ability to produce serotonin in their brains, and found they did NOT show signs of depression-like symptoms.

    The results are published in ACS Chemical Neuroscience, and suggest that the majority of today’s antidepressants, which target serotonin, may not be as effective as we had hoped.

    According to the World Health Organisation, depression is the leading cause of disability across the globe, affecting more than 350 million people worldwide. Back in the late 1980s, the antidepressant Prozac was developed, which works mainly by increasing the amount of serotonin in the brain. It seemed to be effective, and so other depression treatments that acted on serotonin began to flood the market. However, scientists know that 60 to 70 percent of patients taking such drugs continue to feel depressed.

    The team, led by Donald Kuhn, decided to investigate whether serotonin was as involved in the disorder as we expect - if at all.

    To do this, they developed “knockout” mice that didn’t have the ability to make serotonin in their brains. According to the current dogma, these mice should have been depressed. But while the mice were compulsive and aggressive, they didn't show signs of depression-like symptoms, the researchers report.

    After running a range of behavioural tests, the scientists found that when the knockout mice were put under stress, they behaved in the same way as most normal mice. Most of them also responded to antidepressant medications in a similar way to normal mice.

    A press release explains: “These findings further suggest that serotonin is not a major player in the condition, and different factors must be involved.”

    The authors conclude in their paper that this research could dramatically alter the creation of antidepressants in the future.

    If this research is verified, it could turn out to be quite embarrassing - especially when this seems like it should have been one of the first studies done before the development of antidepressants. But mostly it’s great news, as it’ll give scientists a better indication than ever before of where we should be targeting antidepressant treatments.

    source science alert
     
    EuroMode

    EuroMode

    Active Member
    Introducing Dreadnoughtus - the newly discovered biggest dinosaur ever


    The 85-foot dinosaur lived 77m years ago and weighed as much as 12 African elephants



    The discovery of a new supermassive species of dinosaur, one of the biggest ever found, is detailed in new research published today.

    With a 37-foot neck and weighing in at 65 tonnes - the equivalent of seven Tyrannosaurus Rex – the 85-foot Dreadnoughtus schrani was one of the largest dinosaurs to walk the earth. It is the biggest land animal for which a body mass can be accurately calculated, say scientists.

    The findings, revealed in the journal Scientific Reports, are the result of years of work by a team of researchers from the US and Argentina. It took five years to excavate the remains of the massive animal, which were found in in southern Patagonia in Argentina, during trips made between 2005 and 2009. Researchers were able to make an accurate calculation of its size due to finding the most complete skeleton to date of a giant dinosaur, with more than 70 per cent of its bones represented. They included the femur (thigh) and humerus (upper arm), measurements of which are used to help calculate weight.

    “Dreadnoughtus schrani was astoundingly huge,” said Professor Kenneth Lacovara, Drexel University, Philadelphia, who discovered the skeleton and led the excavation and analysis. “It weighed as much as a dozen African elephants or more than seven T-rex. Shockingly, skeletal evidence shows that when this 65-ton specimen died, it was not yet full grown. It is by far the best example we have of any of the most giant creatures to ever walk the planet,” he added.

    The new dinosaur belongs to a group of large plant-eaters known as titanosaurs. It lived 77 million years ago in a temperate forest at the southern tip of South America and was so enormous that it would have been unlikely to be threatened by even the likes of the T-rex, according to researchers.


    The humerus, right, and tibia bones from a Dreadnoughtus schrani

    “With a body the size of a house, the weight of a herd of elephants, and a weaponized tail, Dreadnoughtus would have feared nothing,” commented Professor Lacovara. “That evokes to me a class of turn-of-the-last century battleships called the dreadnoughts, which were huge, thickly clad and virtually impervious.”

    The dinosaur died after the ground on which it stood turned to quicksand in the wake of a flood, based on sedimentary deposits found at the site, researchers suggest. “The rapid and deep burial of the Dreadnoughtus type specimen accounts for its extraordinary completeness. Its misfortune was our luck,” said Professor Lacovara.

    The bones were so large that they had to be digitally scanned to create a 3D model, and researchers are now studying scars left by muscles in an attempt to find out more about how the huge dinosaurs lived.

    Responding to the news of the discovery, Dr Paul Barrett, a dinosaur expert based at the Natural History Museum, London, said: “Dreadnoughtus gives us our first good look at the anatomy of these gigantic sauropod dinosaurs, which were previously known from rather incomplete material.” He added: “This new information will help to shed new light on the relationships among these giants and the number of times true gigantism evolved.”

    source independent
     
    EuroMode

    EuroMode

    Active Member
    ‘Telepathy’ experiment sends first mental message

    FOR the first time, scientists have sent a simple mental message from one person to another without any contact between the two, thousands of kilometres apart in India and France.

    Research led by experts at Harvard University shows technology can be used to transmit information from one person’s brain to another’s even, as in this case, if they are a huge distance apart.

    “It is kind of technological realisation of the dream of telepathy, but it is definitely not magical,” said Giulio Ruffini, a theoretical physicist and co-author of the research.

    “We are using technology to interact electromagnetically with the brain.”

    For the experiment, one person wearing a wireless, internet-linked electroencephalogram or EEG would think a simple greeting, like “hola,” or “ciao”. A computer translated the words into digital binary code, presented by a series of 1s or 0s.

    Then, this message was emailed from India to France, and delivered via robot to the receiver, who through non-invasive brain stimulation could see flashes of light in their peripheral vision.

    The subjects receiving the message did not hear or see the words themselves, but were correctly able to report the flashes of light that corresponded to the message.

    “We wanted to find out if one could communicate directly between two people by reading out the brain activity from one person and injecting brain activity into the second person, and do so across great physical distances by leveraging existing communication pathways,” said co-author Alvaro Pascual-Leone, professor of neurology at Harvard Medical School.

    “One such pathway is, of course, the internet, so our question became, ‘Could we develop an experiment that would bypass the talking or typing part of internet and establish direct brain-to-brain communication between subjects located far away from each other in India and France?’” Ruffini added that extra care was taken to make sure no sensory information got in the way that could have influenced the interpretation of the message.

    Researchers have been attempting to send a message from person to person this way for about a decade, and the proof of principle that was reported in the journal PLOS ONE is still rudimentary, he told AFP.

    “We hope that in the longer term this could radically change the way we communicate with each other,” said Ruffini.

    source theaustralian
     
    EuroMode

    EuroMode

    Active Member
    Hidden henge: Archaeologists discover huge Stonehenge ‘sibling’ nearby


    Scientists say they had no idea massive henge of 50 stones was just two miles away



    Archaeologists have discovered that Stonehenge had a huge stone sibling just two miles to the northeast.

    Using powerful ground-penetrating radar, which can ‘x-ray’ archaeological sites to a depth of up to four metres, investigators from Birmingham and Bradford universities and from the Ludwig Boltzmann Institute in Vienna have discovered a 330 metre long line of more than 50 massive stones, buried under part of the bank of Britain’s largest pre-historic henge.

    “Up till now, we had absolutely no idea that the stones were there,” said the co-director of the investigation Professor Vince Gaffney of Birmingham University.


    Investigators discovered evidence of dozens of new monuments close to Stonehenge

    The geophysical evidence suggests that each buried stone is roughly three metres long and 1.5 metres wide and is positioned horizontally, not vertically, in its earthen matrix.

    However, it’s conceivable that they originally stood vertically in the ground like other standing stones in Britain. It is thought that they were probably brought to the site shortly before 2500BC.

    They seem to have formed the southern arm of a c-shaped ritual ‘enclosure’, the rest of which was made up of an artificially scarped natural elevation in the ground.

    The c-shaped enclosure – more than 330 metres wide and over 400 metres long – faced directly towards the River Avon. The monument was later converted from a c-shaped to a roughly circular enclosure, now known as Durrington Walls – Britain’s largest pre-historic henge, roughly 12 times the size of Stonehenge itself.



    As a religious complex, it would almost certainly have had a deeply spiritual and ritual connection with the river. But precisely why is a complete mystery, although it is possible that that particular stretch of water was regarded as a deity.

    The discovery of the buried stones is part of a much wider archaeological investigation into Stonehenge’s sacred landscape.

    A two-part special BBC Two documentary (Operation Stonehenge: What Lies Beneath), being shown this Thursday evening and next Thursday, is set to reveal the details of many of the investigation’s new discoveries.

    As well as revealing the previously unknown stones of Durrington Walls, the Anglo-Austrian-led investigation has succeeded in locating more than 60 other previously unknown pre-historic monuments.

    “It shows that, in terms of temples and shrines, Stonehenge was far from being alone,” said Professor Gaffney.

    Using ground-penetrating radar, magnetometry and other geophysical techniques to peer beneath the landscape’s surface, archaeologists have found around 17 other henge-like Neolithic and Bronze Age religious monuments, each between 10 and 30 metres in diameter. Some may well have consisted of circles of large timber posts – wooden equivalents of conventional prehistoric stone circles.

    But the archaeologists have also discovered around 20 large and enigmatic ritual pits – each up to five metres in diameter.



    They have also discovered more than half a dozen previously unknown Bronze Age burial mounds – and four Iron Age shrines or tombs, as well as half a dozen Bronze Age and Iron Age domestic or livestock enclosures.

    In total, some 4.5 square miles of buried landscape has been surveyed by the joint Birmingham/Vienna team in an exercise that has taken four years to complete.

    Now the archaeologists plan to analyse the new data – in order to work out how all the newly discovered prehistoric monuments related to each other.

    Using avatar-based computer models, they are hoping to tease out exactly how Neolithic and Bronze Age people used Stonehenge’s landscape.

    Initial results suggest that some of the newly discovered shrines and other monuments grew up along processional ways or pilgrimage routes in Stonehenge’s sacred landscape.

    The 4.5 square mile survey is the largest of its kind ever carried out anywhere in the world.

    The large variety of ‘x-ray’ style techniques used have included more than half a dozen different systems.

    Magnetometry and electro-magnetic induction have been used to map underground features by firing electro magnetic energy into the ground and then measuring the inter-action of that energy with subterranean features such as buried pits, ditches and stones.

    Earth resistance and electrical resistivity imaging have gathered data on underground features by firing electrical energy into the ground and measuring differences in sub-surface resistance to it.

    A fifth technique, magnetic susceptibility analysis, helps archaeologists detect buried layers of burnt material, which often indicate ancient human activity. The system works because naturally occurring iron oxides in the ground can become magnetized through the process of being burnt. A final technique, microgravimetry, can also help detect subterranean features, especially cavities – by measuring tiny differences in local gravitational fields.

    The four year investigation into what lies beneath Stonehenge’s landscape has been carried out jointly by four UK universities (Birmingham, Bradford, St. Andrews and Nottingham) and two continental European institutions – the University of Ghent in Belgium and the Ludwig Boltzmann Institute in Austria.

    source independent
     
    EuroMode

    EuroMode

    Active Member
    Bacteria found in honeybee stomachs could be used as alternative to antibiotics, scientists claim





    Bacteria found in honeybees could be used as an alternative to antibiotics and in the fight against antibiotic-resistant strains of MRSA, scientists have claimed.

    For millenia, raw unmanufactured honey has been used to treat infections.

    Scientists believe its effectiveness could lie in a unique formula comprised of 13 types of lactic acid bacteria found in the stomachs of bees. The bacteria, which are no longer active in shop-bought honey, produce a myriad of active anti-microbial compounds.

    The findings could be vital both in developing countries, where fresh honey is easily available, as well as for Western countries where antibiotic resistance is an increasingly concerning issue.

    By applying the bacteria to pathogens found in severe human wounds - including MRSA - scientists from Lund University, Sweden, found that the formula from a bee’s stomach successfully counteracted the infections.

    Researchers believe that the formula works so potently because it contains a broad spectrum of active substances, unlike conventional man-made antibiotics.


    "Antibiotics are mostly one active substance, effective against only a narrow spectrum of bacteria. When used alive, these 13 lactic acid bacteria produce the right kind of antimicrobial compounds as needed, depending on the threat,” Dr Tobias Olofsson of the Medical Microbiology department at Lund Unviersity explained.

    "It seems to have worked well for millions of years of protecting bees' health and honey against other harmful microorganisms.

    "However, since store-bought honey doesn't contain the living lactic acid bacteria, many of its unique properties have been lost in recent times," he added.

    To take the study forward, scientists will investigate wider clinical use against topical infections, on both humans and animals.

    The findings are likely to give further ammunition to bee protection groups, after a separate study found that the use of neonicotinoids – the world’s most commonly used pesticides - damage vital bee populations.

    It warned that the pesticides, which are linked to the decline of honeybees and other beneficial organisms including earthworms and butterflies, are having a dramatic impact on ecosystems that support food production and wildlife.

    source independent
     
    Last edited by a moderator:
    EuroMode

    EuroMode

    Active Member
    'King Nose' dinosaur discovered after being left in storage for two decades





    The remains of a 30ft-long dinosaur that had a snout so large it was branded "King Nose" have been discovered after being left in storage for two decades.

    Scientists came across the unusual duck-billed dinosaur, which has been named Rhinorex condrupus, in storage at Brigham Young University’s Museum, Utah. It was originally excavated from Utah’s Nelsen rock formation in the 1990s.

    Dr Terry Gates and Dr Scheetz said it was only as they started to reconstruct the fossil that they realised they had found a new species.

    “We had almost the entire skull, which was wonderful,” Dr Gates said, “but the preparation was very difficult. It took two years to dig the fossil out of the sandstone it was embedded in – it was like digging a dinosaur skull out of a concrete driveway.”

    Based on the recovered bones, the paleontologists estimated that Rhinorex – which translates roughly to King Nose – was about 30ft long and weighed over 8,500 lbs.

    It lived around 50 miles from what is now the Utah coast, in a swampy environment, and is the only complete hadrosaur fossil from the site - thus helping to fill in some gaps about habitation segregation during the Late Cretaceous period.

    Unlike other Cretaceous hadrosaurs, which are usually identified by bony crests extending from their skull, Rhinorex instead possessed a huge nose.

    “The purpose of such a big nose is still a mystery,” said Dr Gates.

    “If this dinosaur is anything like its relatives then it likely did not have a super sense of smell; but maybe the nose was used as a means of attracting mates, recognizing members of its species, or even as a large attachment for a plant-smashing beak. We are already sniffing out answers to these questions.”

    source independent
     
    EuroMode

    EuroMode

    Active Member
    Windows 10: Microsoft bypasses 'Windows 9' to unveil latest operating system





    Microsoft has revealed that its latest operating system will be called Windows 10 – skipping 'Windows 9' in an apparent attempt to emphasise a shift in focus towards mobile devices and the Internet.

    The system will run on a wide range of devices, including phones, tablets, PCs and Xbox games consoles, with applications sold from a single store.

    The tech giant offered a glimpse of its latest vision at an event in San Francisco on Tuesday, where it unveiled what the system’s Start Menu will look like. On Wednesday, the firm will make a technical preview version available to advanced users who sign up to the Windows Preview website.

    It plans to unveil details about consumer features early next year, with a formal release in mid-2015.

    Windows 8, the current version unveiled two years ago, has been criticised for its interface, which has forced users to change how they use their devices.

    Joe Belfiore, an executive at the company who oversees Windows design and evolution, said Windows 10 will offer “the familiarity of Windows 7 with some of the benefits that exist in Windows 8” to help business users make the transition.

    In a video posted on YouTube, he unveiled features including the re-introduced Start Menu, as well as a new search function on the task bar, and apps which can be manipulated on-screen like regular programs.


    The success of the new Windows will be closely watched as it is a crucial chance for Microsoft and new CEO Satya Nadella to prove that Microsoft can embrace mobile devices without sacrificing the traditional computing experience.

    The update will retain touch-screen functions on compatible devices, and will create a more unified experience for Windows users who switch between desktop computers, tablets and smartphones.

    Microsoft executive Terry Myerson said Windows 10 will be “a whole new generation” and, as expected, will work across a variety of devices — from phones to gaming consoles.

    source independent
     
    Last edited by a moderator:
    nonsense

    nonsense

    Legendary Member
    Serotonin may not play major role in depression, new evidence suggests

    New research in mice throws into question the long-standing belief that serotonin deficiency plays a key role in depression.



    A study by scientists in the US has cast doubt on the belief that a deficiency in serotonin, a chemical messenger in the brain, is a major trigger for depression.

    The team from the John D. Dingell VA Medical Centre and Wayne State University School of Medicine in Michigan developed mice that lacked the ability to produce serotonin in their brains, and found they did NOT show signs of depression-like symptoms.

    The results are published in ACS Chemical Neuroscience, and suggest that the majority of today’s antidepressants, which target serotonin, may not be as effective as we had hoped.

    According to the World Health Organisation, depression is the leading cause of disability across the globe, affecting more than 350 million people worldwide. Back in the late 1980s, the antidepressant Prozac was developed, which works mainly by increasing the amount of serotonin in the brain. It seemed to be effective, and so other depression treatments that acted on serotonin began to flood the market. However, scientists know that 60 to 70 percent of patients taking such drugs continue to feel depressed.

    The team, led by Donald Kuhn, decided to investigate whether serotonin was as involved in the disorder as we expect - if at all.

    To do this, they developed “knockout” mice that didn’t have the ability to make serotonin in their brains. According to the current dogma, these mice should have been depressed. But while the mice were compulsive and aggressive, they didn't show signs of depression-like symptoms, the researchers report.

    After running a range of behavioural tests, the scientists found that when the knockout mice were put under stress, they behaved in the same way as most normal mice. Most of them also responded to antidepressant medications in a similar way to normal mice.

    A press release explains: “These findings further suggest that serotonin is not a major player in the condition, and different factors must be involved.”

    The authors conclude in their paper that this research could dramatically alter the creation of antidepressants in the future.

    If this research is verified, it could turn out to be quite embarrassing - especially when this seems like it should have been one of the first studies done before the development of antidepressants. But mostly it’s great news, as it’ll give scientists a better indication than ever before of where we should be targeting antidepressant treatments.

    source science alert

    Serotonin's role, the ridiculous research mistakes and business models that built on it to make billions, all have been previously uncovered by Irving Kirsch's work, including in the popular book "The Emperor's New Drugs: Exploding the Antidepressant Myth". I find it amazing that many (or a good number of them!) mental health professionals still prescribe drugs that they know don't have a theoretical basis to justify them. This doesn't mean you should stop any anti-depressants you're taking overnight. But it could be worthwhile to have a discussion with whoever is treating you. Stopping such medications suddenly can be dangerous.

    -- here's an excerpt from Kirsch's book summary

    Do antidepressants work? Of course—everyone knows it. Like his colleagues, Irving Kirsch, a researcher and clinical psychologist, for years referred patients to psychiatrists to have their depression treated with drugs before deciding to investigate for himself just how effective the drugs actually were. Over the course of the past fifteen years, however, Kirsch’s research—a thorough analysis of decades of Food and Drug Administration data—has demonstrated that what everyone knew about antidepressants was wrong. Instead of treating depression with drugs, we’ve been treating it with suggestion.

    The Emperor’s New Drugs makes an overwhelming case that what had seemed a cornerstone of psychiatric treatment is little more than a faulty consensus. But Kirsch does more than just criticize: he offers a path society can follow so that we stop popping pills and start proper treatment for depression.
     
    EuroMode

    EuroMode

    Active Member
    Vaginal orgasms are a 'myth', claim researchers



    There is no such thing as a vaginal orgasm, a clitoral orgasm or even a G-spot, a new study claims.

    Instead, a paper published in the journal Clinical Anatomy says, the correct term should be "female orgasm".

    According to the report, the descriptions of female sexual organs are wrong. It claims the “internal clitoris does not exist” because the entire clitoris is, in fact, an external organ.

    The study says that the majority of women do not orgasm during penetrative sex and the ‘vaginal’ orgasm reported by some women is in fact caused by the surrounding erectile organs – or stimulation of the clitoris.

    Although it is impossible to have a clitoral orgasm, women cannot orgasm without stimulation of the clitoris.

    Writing in the study, published earlier this week, the researchers say: “female orgasm is possible in all women, always with effective stimulation of the female erect organs”.

    Previously, it was believed that G-spot, vaginal or clitoral orgasm were all different types of climax.

    The study attacks much of what has previously been written about female erogenous zones, claiming: “G-spot/vaginal/clitoral orgasm, vaginally activated orgasm, and clitorally activated orgasm, are incorrect terms”.

    Describing female ejaculation, premature ejaculation, and G-spot amplification, the study also claims these are “terms without scientific basis.”


    source independent
     
    EuroMode

    EuroMode

    Active Member
    Mysterious giant megaliths discovered in Russia puzzle scientists

    Walls in a polygonal masonry technique

    Mysterious stones on Mountain Shoriya (Kemerov region, Russia) have puzzled both scientists and ordinary men. The wall of rectangular stones piled up on top of each other is already being called the “Russian Stonehenge”. According to one of the stories, they were found back in ancient times.

    Though it aroused the interest of researchers in 1991, it was not explored then due to lack of financing. The research was just resumed in autumn 2013.





    The granite blocks impress with their dimensions. They are making up walls in a polygonal masonry technique. Geologists compare them with Stonehenge and Egyptian pyramids.

    The walls are 40 meters high, and they stretch for almost 200 meters. The length of some of the stones is about 20 meters, and their height is 5-7 meters. The weight of every block is more than 1000 tons.

    Those who built them could have had technologies that we do not know of today. It still remains unclear why the walls were erected and how their builders managed to lift the blocks at the height of more than 1000 meters.

    Another possible explanation is that the stones could have formed as a result of geological processes caused by strong weathering of the Mountain Shoriya rocks.

    The geologists however, do not rush to make any conclusions, more proof is required.

    Some events that were happening during the autumn expedition could probably be called mystical. The compasses of the geologists behaved very strangely, for some unknown reason their arrows were deviating from the megaliths. What could this mean? All that was clear was that they came across an inexplicable phenomenon of the negative geomagnetic field. Could this be a remnant of ancient antigravity technologies?

    Maybe the location of the ruins will help scientists to discover their purpose.

    No stone walls like these ones have ever been found in the territory of Russia.

    Participants of the expedition suppose that these ruins are a material proof of the theory according to which Siberia could be the ancestral home of all humanity. It’s the first time in the entire human history when walls made from 2-4 tonne (!) blocks were found.

    Who created them and what for? It does not seem that they could be created by nature. Besides, according to the traces preserved until today, these structures were destroyed by a terribly powerful explosion. It could have been a catastrophic earthquake or a strike of a space meteorite…

    At the same time, other scientists do not agree with such sensational assumptions. The proof is the following – the oldest of the ruins is not more than ten thousand years old. According to them it’s not correct to call the object the “Russian Stonehenge” either, because no cultural remains have ever been found here, that is why it’s quite unlikely the walls were created by humans.

    Well, maybe archaeological excavations will bring some artifacts to life?

    Yes, people can be really creative. But we have a lot of proof that nature is not less creative than people, and while we are still unsure about the origin of the ruins, we can give free rein to our imagination…

    source infowars
     
    J. Abizeid

    J. Abizeid

    Well-Known Member

    Unmanned Antares rocket explodes seconds after take-off


    China successfully launches experimental satellite
     
    Last edited by a moderator:
    EuroMode

    EuroMode

    Active Member
    Shift work could be affecting your mental ability, scientists claim





    Working an irregular shift pattern may be causing long-term damage to people’s memory and mental abilities, new research has shown.

    Shift work can disrupt the body’s internal clock in a similar way to jet lag, and has been linked before to an increased risk of health problems such as heart problems and even some cancers.

    However, scientists have now found a link between working shifts and a decline in brain function – especially among those whose shifts rotated between morning, afternoon and night.

    In a study of 3,000 people living in France, scientists found that those who worked rotating shifts performed significantly worse in memory and cognitive speed tests than people who had worked regular hours.

    The level of cognitive decline seen in people who worked irregular shifts for 10 years was equivalent to six and a half years’ worth of natural, age-related cognitive decline, said researchers from the universities of Toulouse and Swansea.

    Precisely how shift work might have an impact on brain function is not fully understood.

    Disruptions to the body clock – or circadian rhythm – are known to affect the body and the mind. People who regularly fly long-haul have been shown to suffer from poorer brain function, thought to be caused by the breakdown of some brain structures, caused by the over-production of stress hormones.

    A similar mechanism may be occurring in people working alternating night and day shifts for a prolonged period of time.

    It has also been suggested that night shift workers may be more susceptible to vitamin D deficiencies because of reduced exposure to sunlight. Vitamin D deficiency has been linked to impaired brain function by some studies.

    In the French study, 1,200 of the participants were followed up at three different stages, in 1996, 2001 and 2006. One in five of them had worked shift patterns rotating between mornings, afternoons and nights.

    Those who were currently or had previously worked shifts had lower scores on memory and processing speed tests than those who worked ordinary office hours.

    Researchers found that stopping shift work was linked with an improvement in cognitive function – suggesting that any ill effects are reversible – but said that it took five years out of shift work for this effect to be seen.

    Writing in the British Medical Journal, the authors, led by Dr Jean-Claude Marquié of the University of Toulouse, said that shift workers’ health should be closely monitored as a result of their findings.

    “The cognitive impairment observed in the present study may have important safety consequences not only for the individuals concerned, but also for society as a whole given the increasing number of jobs in high-hazard situations that are performed at night,” they write.

    “It may also affect shift workers’ quality of life, with respect to daily life activities that are highly dependent on the availability of cognitive resources.

    “The current findings highlight the importance of maintaining a medical surveillance of shift workers, especially of those who have remained in shift work for 10 years or more.”


    source independent
     
    EuroMode

    EuroMode

    Active Member
    How to make ghosts in the lab: scientists trick volunteers into reporting 'feelings of presence'


    Scientists say the experiments show that when our bodily systems malfunction (either through disease or outside influence) the mind imagines apparitions



    What’s the best way to prove ghost don’t exist? Make them in a lab of course! Or, at least, create the sort of mind-and-body confusion that leads people to believe that spirits and apparitions are in the room with them.

    This is what a group of scientists from the Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne (EPFL) in Switzerland have done, with the help of some mechanical apparatus known as a ‘master-slave device’.

    This consist of two jointed mechanical arms that move in tandem, with volunteers controlling one in front of them like an extra-long finger while a second (located behind them) pokes them in the back.

    No, really – the thinking apparently being that if you have to do silly science to disprove silly beliefs then so be it.

    With the volunteers blind-folded they begin to manipulate the ‘master’ arm in front, while the ‘slave’ arm behind begins to prod their back – but with a 500 millisecond delay.

    The result? Some of the volunteers reported that they felt they were surrounded by ghostly presences that were touching them, with two of the twelve participants reportedly so disturbed by the feeling that they asked for the experiment to end.

    “Our experiment induced the sensation of a foreign presence in the laboratory for the first time. It shows that it can arise under normal conditions, simply through conflicting sensory-motor signals,” said Professor Olaf Blanke.


    “The robotic system mimics the sensations of some patients with mental disorders or of healthy individuals under extreme circumstances,” he added. “This confirms that it is caused by an altered perception of their own bodies in the brain.”

    Dr Giulio Rognini, co-author of the study published in the journal Current Biology, said: “Our brain possesses several representations of our body in space. Under normal conditions, it is able to assemble a unified self-perception of the self from these representations.

    “But when the system malfunctions because of disease - or, in this case, a robot - this can sometimes create a second representation of one’s own body, which is no longer perceived as ‘me’ but as someone else, a “presence”.”

    source independent
     
    Last edited by a moderator:
    EuroMode

    EuroMode

    Active Member
    Scientists discover how mosquitoes came to love the taste of humans





    A chemical vapour exuded from human skin became the key reason why mosquitoes turned from feeding on animals to sucking the blood of people, a study has found.

    Sulcatone is an important ingredient in the distinctive human odour, and mosquitoes learnt to recognise it many thousands of years ago as a sign that they were near a source of food, scientists have discovered.

    Researchers found that the present-day black-bodied mosquitoes that feed on the furry skin of forest animals do not show any preference for sulcatone, but the brown mosquitoes living in and around villages in Africa are highly attracted to the scent.

    “We knew that these mosquitoes had evolved to love the way we smell,” said Leslie Vosshall of Rockefeller University in New York, who led the study published in the journal Nature.

    “It was a really good evolutionary move. We provide the ideal lifestyle for mosquitoes. We always have water around for them to breed in, we are hairless and we live in large groups,” Professor Vosshall said.

    The scientists identified a group of 14 genes in the mosquito genome that are strongly linked to their love of humans and one odour receptor in particular – called Or4 – stood out as being highly active in the human-preferring mosquitoes.

    They linked the Or4 receptor with one of many compounds collected from human skin that form part of the natural scent of people. This was the key that locked the mosquito to the smell of its new human host.

    source independent
     
    EuroMode

    EuroMode

    Active Member
    The Harry Potter invisibility cloak is one step closer to reality

    Scientists at the University of Rochester have developed a new lens which will allow objects to become ‘invisible’.

    Unlike other cloaking devises, it can work in 3D. As research published in Optics Express detail, the device is made by four ordinary lenses and can make objects look like they are invisible when viewed in a number of different angles.

    “This is the first device that we know of that can do three-dimensional, continuously multidirectional cloaking, which works for transmitting rays in the visible spectrum,” said Joseph Choi, the paper’s lead author. “This cloak bends light and sends it through the center of the device.”

    The good news is that in can be scaled up - meaning that the dream of creating an invisibility cloak, like the one JK Rowling describes in Harry Potter is one step closer to reality.


    source independent
     
    Last edited by a moderator:
    Top