Ottomans referred to Lebanon as "Durza"?

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𓍝𓂀𓄃𓇼

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"Cedid Atlas is the first translation of the atlas in the Muslim world, printed and published in 1803 in Istanbul, then the capital of the Ottoman Empire. "

The Atlas refers to Lebanon as "Durza" and separates it from Syria.


This shows that the claim that Lebanese were Syrians was even bogus to the Ottomans. A direct blow to Pan-Arabists and Pan-Syrians who claim we are a European invention.

But it puts into question why the Ottomans didn't mention the Sunni Muslims (who now praise the Ottomans)? They obviously left out the Maronites as they are Christian and somehow accepted the Druze (although they knew they were not Muslim, because of invading houses and then exporting the Hikma texts to Constantinople).
 
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    𓍝𓂀𓄃𓇼

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    It could also be an indication that many Maronites (are actually ex-Druze) who mostly converted in the 1700s and 1800s, which could explain the striking 2% genetic similarity without intermarriage.
     
    Ice Tea

    Ice Tea

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    Yes. Mount Lebanon had a solid Druze majority throughout the late middle ages up to the 17th century.

    The Christian population at the time was not very numerous. Maronites were very small in numbers and lived very secluded in the Qadisha/Bsharre and spoke Syriac. RΓ»ms lived mostly in Tripoli, Sidon and Baalbek. The Rum population was much bigger than the Maronites overall.

    I don't think the Qaysi-Yamani Druze conflict is the sole reason for the massive decrease of the Druze population in Mount Lebanon. One theory that could explain both the dramatic increase of the Maronite population and the decrease of the Druze population is that many Druze converted to Maronitism. Also, the Melkite Catholic Church who had just separated from the Greek Orthodox Church at the time, may have attracted many Druze who would help to found Zahle.
     
    Ice Tea

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    indeed brothers and they enjoyed a common sport, killing one another!
    like one true happy family :)

    The Ottomans pitted both communities against each other. Both communities realize that now and are very close to each other.
     
    𓍝𓂀𓄃𓇼

    𓍝𓂀𓄃𓇼

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    It could also be an indication that many Maronites (are actually ex-Druze) who mostly converted in the 1700s and 1800s, which could explain the striking 2% genetic similarity without intermarriage.
    I actually meant 2% genetic distance.
     
    !Aoune32

    !Aoune32

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    Yes. Mount Lebanon had a solid Druze majority throughout the late middle ages up to the 17th century.

    The Christian population at the time was not very numerous. Maronites were very small in numbers and lived very secluded in the Qadisha/Bsharre and spoke Syriac. RΓ»ms lived mostly in Tripoli, Sidon and Baalbek. The Rum population was much bigger than the Maronites overall.

    I don't think the Qaysi-Yamani Druze conflict is the sole reason for the massive decrease of the Druze population in Mount Lebanon. One theory that could explain both the dramatic increase of the Maronite population and the decrease of the Druze population is that many Druze converted to Maronitism. Also, the Melkite Catholic Church who had just separated from the Greek Orthodox Church at the time, may have attracted many Druze who would help to found Zahle.
    It doesn't mean conversion happened. Maybe the maronite community which was in Syria moved or migrated to Lebanon hence the population increased.
     
    Ice Tea

    Ice Tea

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    It doesn't mean conversion happened. Maybe the maronite community which was in Syria moved or migrated to Lebanon hence the population increased.
    While a Lebanese Christian and a Muslim are easily distinguishable from a genetic point of view, a Druze and a Lebanese Christian are indistinguishable and you cannot know who is who. While the Palestinian Christians are closest to Samaritans and the Syrian Christians closest to Assyrians, the Lebanese Christians are closest to Druze.

    Given the lack of intermariage among the Druze, we have to wonder how the Christians are so close to them. There's indeed a great possibility that Lebanese Christians (not just maronites) are largely Druze-descended. And if indeed we are, we should be proud because the Druze are a noble, courageous and peaceful people.
     
    !Aoune32

    !Aoune32

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    While a Lebanese Christian and a Muslim are easily distinguishable from a genetic point of view, a Druze and a Lebanese Christian are indistinguishable and you cannot know who is who. While the Palestinian Christians are closest to Samaritans and the Syrian Christians closest to Assyrians, the Lebanese Christians are closest to Druze.

    Given the lack of intermariage among the Druze, we have to wonder how the Christians are so close to them. There's indeed a great possibility that Lebanese Christians (not just maronites) are largely Druze-descended. And if indeed we are, we should be proud because the Druze are a noble, courageous and peaceful people.
    why this love for the druze ya3ne ma fhemet?
    second, what do you mean close to them? so you are saying that now I as a Roum from Tripoli originally was a druze?
     
    Ice Tea

    Ice Tea

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    why this love for the druze ya3ne ma fhemet?

    Because they are the only people we share the same values and goals for this country. Have you been to Druze towns like Baakline, Rashaya, etc? They feel just as Lebanese as any Christian town. Try now going to Nabatieh or Akkar, it feels Iraq. See what I mean? The Druze are our only natural friends and allies in this region[].

    second, what do you mean close to them? so you are saying that now I as a Roum from Tripoli originally was a druze?





    I think the original northern Christians like yourself and others from Bsharre, Zagharta etc may be closest to Assyrians, while Mount Lebanon and Zahlawi Christians are definitely the ones who may descend from Druze. But overall all non-Muslims are closely related.
     
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    !Aoune32

    !Aoune32

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    Because they are the only people we share the same values and goals for this country. Have you been to Druze towns like Baakline, Rashaya, etc? They feel just as Lebanese as any Christian town. Try now going to Nabatieh or Akkar, it feels Iraq. See what I mean? The Druze are our only natural friends and allies in this region[].








    I think the original northern Christians like yourself and others from Bsharre, Zagharta etc may be closest to Assyrians, while Mount Lebanon and Zahlawi Christians are definitely the ones who may descend from Druze. But overall all non-Muslims are closely related.
    The druze don't have many children. There are only 200K in Lebanon.
    Also, its not that they live like us but they aren't muslim. Their religion is different and has nothing to do with Islam. Same as the Alawites. The shia's only included them as shia due to a political stance. They were seen as heretics.
     
    Ice Tea

    Ice Tea

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    The druze don't have many children. There are only 200K in Lebanon.
    Also, its not that they live like us but they aren't muslim. Their religion is different and has nothing to do with Islam. Same as the Alawites. The shia's only included them as shia due to a political stance. They were seen as heretics.

    Both are are closer to Christianity than to Islam.
     
    Rafidi

    Rafidi

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    It doesn't mean conversion happened. Maybe the maronite community which was in Syria moved or migrated to Lebanon hence the population increased.
    Starting from the 12th century, and upwards many Shia families and Druze converted to Maronite Christianity. The striking and most renowned example is the Shia Hashem family. The Shia once dominated in the North, particularly Tripoli and in Mount Lebanon. The Mamluks dealt them a heavy blow. The Takfiri fatwas of Ibn Taymiya was the fuel that made the Shia heretics who should be killed. Many converted to Maronite Christianity to save themselves and be considered as "people of the Book". Others were fled southward and to the Bekaa valley where they sought refuge with their coreligionists. Thus you have the founding of Bint Jbeil (or the " daughter of Jbeil"). This is one aspect of Lebanese history that is most forgotten or hidden for whatever reasons. Despite the fact that many Shias converted to Maronite Christianity, and others were driven and the Maronite were benefactors through the implication of the Takfiri attacks on the Shia, this part of Lebanese history combined different present day Lebanese communities and joined their blood together.
     
    !Aoune32

    !Aoune32

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    Starting from the 12th century, and upwards many Shia families and Druze converted to Maronite Christianity. The striking and most renowned example is the Shia Hashem family. The Shia once dominated in the North, particularly Tripoli and in Mount Lebanon. The Mamluks dealt them a heavy blow. The Takfiri fatwas of Ibn Taymiya was the fuel that made the Shia heretics who should be killed. Many converted to Maronite Christianity to save themselves and be considered as "people of the Book". Others were fled southward and to the Bekaa valley where they sought refuge with their coreligionists. Thus you have the founding of Bint Jbeil (or the " daughter of Jbeil"). This is one aspect of Lebanese history that is most forgotten or hidden for whatever reasons. Despite the fact that many Shias converted to Maronite Christianity, and others were driven and the Maronite were benefactors through the implication of the Takfiri attacks on the Shia, this part of Lebanese history combined different present day Lebanese communities and joined their blood together.
    what is the point??
    aslan that could be so. in lebanon you find the other sects that live with the maronites are shia and the druze. hardly the orthodox or the sunni. they live with the maronites in jbeil, baabda, jezzine, tyre, baalbeck, etc.
     
    Rafidi

    Rafidi

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    what is the point??
    aslan that could be so. in lebanon you find the other sects that live with the maronites are shia and the druze. hardly the orthodox or the sunni. they live with the maronites in jbeil, baabda, jezzine, tyre, baalbeck, etc.
    Some malicious Zionist hasbara troll is trying to reinvent history and make a special Maronite - Druze marriage and divorce others (who are very much indigenous to Lebanon and the Levant) from history and their ties to the land and to others. Further trying to forget that no two groups in Lebanese history have killed and hated each other more than the Druze and the Maronites.
     
    The_FPMer

    The_FPMer

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    Some malicious Zionist hasbara troll is trying to reinvent history and make a special Maronite - Druze marriage and divorce others (who are very much indigenous to Lebanon and the Levant) from history and their ties to the land and to others. Further trying to forget that no two groups in Lebanese history have killed and hated each other more than the Druze and the Maronites.
    What did the Shias bring forth in Lebanon? That is an honest question btw, not a sarcastic one.
     
    Rafidi

    Rafidi

    Legendary Member
    Origins

    The cultural and linguistic heritage of the Lebanese people is a blend of both indigenous Phoenician elements and the foreign cultures that have come to rule the land and its people over the course of thousands of years. In a 2013 interview the lead investigator, Pierre Zalloua, pointed out that genetic variation preceded religious variation and divisions: "Lebanon already had well-differentiated communities with their own genetic peculiarities, but not significant differences, and religions came as layers of paint on top. There is no distinct pattern that shows that one community carries significantly more Phoenician than another."[5]

    Haplogroup J2 is also a significant marker in throughout Lebanon (~30%). This marker found in many inhabitants of Lebanon, regardless of religion, signals pre-Arab descendants, including the Phoenicians/Aramaens. These genetic studies show us there is no significant differences between the Muslims and non-Muslims of Lebanon.[6] Genealogical DNA testing has shown that 21.3% of Lebanese Muslims (non-Druze) belong to the Y-DNAhaplogroup J1 compared with non-Muslims at 17%.[7] Although Haplogroup J1 finds its putative origins in the Arabian peninsula, studies show that it has been present in the Levant since the times of the Canaanites and does not necessarily indicate Arab descent.[8]Other haplogroups present among Lebanese Shia include E-M96 (19%), G-M201 (10%) and others at less frequencies.[7]

    Genetics aside, the population of pre-Islamic Lebanon was mainly Phoenician who began to speak Aramaic. Under Byzantine rule, this Aramaen population was Hellenized and adopted the Greek language alongside their native Aramaic. It is important to note that most villages and towns in Lebanon today have Aramaic names, reflecting this forgotten heritage. Alongside the natives, small pockets of Greeks, Arabs, and others from around the Mediterranean world moved in and assimilated into the population. Amongst these pre-Islamic Arabs, Banu Amela has importance for the Lebanese Shia for adopting and nurturing Shi'ism for the southern population. As the Islamic expansion reached Lebanon, these Arab tribes received the most power which encouraged the rest of the population to adopt Arabic as the main language.[9]
    Many historians claim that Shia Islam entered Lebanon in the 7th century A.D. with the emergence and growth of Islam. The emergence of the Lebanese Shia community began with the entrance of the revered companion of the Prophet, Abu Dhar al-Ghifari. After having been banished from Medina by the Umayyads for opposing their reign, Abu Dharr moved into Lebanon and converted the local populace. There are two Shia shrines to Abu Dhar in Lebanon β€” in Sarepta and Meiss al-Jabal.[citation needed]
    A Shia emirate was established in Keserwan, a mountain region overlooking the coastal area north of Beirut, in which they prospered for the next five centuries.

    Under Mamluk and Ottoman ruleEdit
    See also: Harfush clan
    See also: Nasif al-Nassar
    The growth of Shia Islam in Lebanon stopped around the late thirteenth century, and subsequently Shia communities decreased in size. This development may be traced to 1291, when the Sunni Mamluks sent numerous military expeditions to subdue the Shias of Keserwan, a mountain region overlooking the coastal area north of Beirut. The first two Mamluk expeditions were defeated by the Shia in Keserwan. The third expedition, on the other hand, was overwhelmingly large and was able to defeat the Shia in Keserwan; many were brutally slaughtered, some fled through the mountains to northern Beqaa while others fled moving through the Beqaa plain, to a new safe haven in Jezzine. Keserwan began to lose its Shia character under the Assaf Sunni Turkomans whom the Mamluks appointed as overlords of the area in 1306. The process intensified around 1545 when the Maronites started migrating to Keserwan and Jbeil, encouraged by the Assafs, who sought to use them as a counterweight to the Shia Himada sheikhs who reemerged in Keserwan in the 16th century. When in 1605 the Druze emir Fakhr al-Din Ma'n II took over Keserwan, he entrusted its management to the Khazin Maronite family. The Khazins gradually colonized Keserwan, purchasing Shia lands and founding churches and monasteries. They emerged as the predominant authority in the region at the expense of the Shia Hamedeh clan. By the end of the eighteenth century, the Khazins owned Keserwan and only a few Shia villages survived. Tradition tells us that many Shia of Keserwan also adopted Christianity after heavy persecution and many Maronites of the region today are their descendants.[citation needed]

    During the time of the Ottoman Empire, the Shias suffered religious persecution and were often forced to flee their homes in search of refuge in the South. In response to the growth of Shia Islam, the Ottoman Empire put Shias to the sword in Anatolia. Hundreds of thousands of Shias were massacred in the Ottoman Empire, including the Alevis in Turkey, the Alawis in Syria and the Shia of Lebanon.[10] One example is the Lebanese city of Tripoli, which had formerly had a Shia Muslim majority. Many Lebanese Shia are rumored to have concealed their religious sect and acted as Sunni Muslims in fear of persecution. It is also rumored[by whom?] that some of the Shia permanently adopted the Sunni Muslim sect. The Ottomans and Druzewere well allied and a Druze family seized power of Tripoli. Maronites who were persecuted by the Ottomans and the Druze, sought refuge amongst the newly relocated Shia population in the South. Jezzine, once famously known as a Shia capital in Lebanon, is now known as a majority Maronite and Melkite Christian city in the South. The Shias withdrew further south and eventually had to abandon even Jezzine, which until the mid-eighteenth century had functioned as a center of Shia learning in Lebanon.[11] The traditional accounts of Shia "persecution" in Lebanon, however, which are largely based on family legends, are seriously called into question by the Ottoman documentation available in the state archives in Istanbul or local sharia archives in Tripoli. According to these, leading Shia families such as the Hamadas in Tripoli, the Harfushes in the Beqaa or the Ali al-Saghirs in Jabal 'Amil were co-opted into the Ottoman system of government, serving as tax farmers (multezim) over huge areas and enjoying other government offices (sancak-beylik governorships, etc.) in the region.[12]

    Although the Jabal 'Amil enjoyed a degree of autonomy in the eighteenth century under the leader of the Ali al-Saghirs, Nasif al-Nassar, and the Arab leader of northern Palestine, Zahir al-Umar, this ended with the Ottoman appointment of Ahmad al-Jazzar as governor of Sidon province (1775–1804). Jazzar crushed the military power of the Shia clan leaders and burned the libraries of the religious scholars using the Druze tribes established in the Shouf, mainly the strong Nakad family, allied to the Maan. He established a centralized administration in the Shia areas and brought their revenues and cash crops under his domain. By the late eighteenth century, the Shias of the Jabal 'Amil lost their independent spirit and adopted an attitude of political defeat. Al-Jezzar was nicknamed "the butcher" and a big population of the Shia were killed under his rule in Lebanon.

    Relations with Iranian Shias
    During most of the Ottoman period, the Shia largely maintained themselves as 'a state apart', although they found common ground with their fellow Lebanese, the Maronites; this may have been due to the persecutions both sects faced. They maintained contact with the Safavid dynasty of Persia, where they helped establish Shia Islam as the state religion of Persia during the Safavid conversion of Iran from Sunni to Shia Islam. Since most of the population embraced Sunni Islam and since an educated version of Shia Islam was scarce in Iran at the time, Isma'il imported a new Shia Ulema corps from traditional Shiite centers of the Arabic speaking lands, such as Jabal Amil(of Southern Lebanon), Bahrain and Southern Iraq in order to create a state clergy. Isma'il offered them land and money in return for loyalty. These scholars taught the doctrine of Twelver Shia Islam and made it accessible to the population and energetically encouraged conversion to Shia Islam.[13][14][15][16] To emphasize how scarce Twelver Shia Islam was then to be found in Iran, a chronicler tells us that only one Shia text could be found in Isma'il's capital Tabriz.[17] Thus it is questionable whether Isma'il and his followers could have succeeded in forcing a whole people to adopt a new faith without the support of the Arab Shia scholars.[18]

    These contacts further angered the Ottoman Sultan, who had already viewed them as religious heretics. The Sultan was frequently at war with the Persians, as well as being, in the role of Caliph, the leader of the majority Sunni community. Shia Lebanon, when not subject to political repression, was generally neglected, sinking further and further into the economic background. Towards the end of the eighteenth century the Comte de Volmy was to describe the Shia as a distinct society.[citation needed]

    French mandate periodEdit
    The Shias in Lebanon were the first to resist the French occupation. Following the creation of the French mandate, armed rebels led by Adham Khanjar and Sadiq Hamzeh attacked French positions in Southern Lebanon, including an unsuccessful attempt on French High Commissioner Henri Gouraud in which Khanjar was captured and later executed.[19




















































    Lebanese Shia Muslims (CIA est.)[43][44]
    Year Percent
    1932 20%
    1985 41%
    2012 27%


    The last census in Lebanon in 1932 put the numbers of Shias at 20% of the population (155,000 of 791,700).[44] A study done by the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) in 1985 put the numbers of Shias at 41% of the population (919,000 of 2,228,000).[44]
    According to a 2012 CIA study, the Shia Muslims constituted an estimated 27% of Lebanon's population.[43]

    In 2017, the CIA World Factbook stated that Shia Muslims constitute 28.4% of Lebanon's population.[45]

    According to other sources, the Lebanese Shia Muslims have become the single largest religious community in Lebanon, constituting approximately 40 percent of the entire population.[46][47]

    Percentage growth of the Lebanese Shia Muslim population (other sources est.)[46]











































    Year Shiite Population Total Lebanese Population Percentage
    1932 154,208 785,543 19.6%
    1956 250,605 1,407,868 17.8%
    1975 668,500 2,550,000 26.2%
    1984 1,100,000 3,757,000 30.8%
    1988 1,325,000 4,044,784 32.8%
    2005 1,600,000 4,082,000 40%
     
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