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WHAT IS THE ORIGIN OF OUR EXISTENCE?

suhail jalbout

New Member
WHAT IS THE ORIGIN OF OUR EXISTENCE?

BY SUHAIL M. JALBOUT



Why did life emerge on our planet and how? These are questions that have been for many years the concern of humans in general and scientists in particular. If a logical explanation can be presented to reveal the secrets of life on our planet, then it may be possible to predict the process and possibilities for the emergence of similar life in our universe.

Most life forms on Earth require three main basic elements to survive. These elements are: water, oxygen, and ozone. There is scientific evidence to confirm that these elements, including single-cell organisms, occurred on Earth at approximately the same time 3.8 billion years ago. At this early date, Earth experienced the following dramatic changes which triggered the emergence of life and its survival:


  1. Oceans were formed on Earth’s surface.1
  2. Its original primitive atmosphere became oxygen enriched almost to the same level as ours today.2
  3. An ozone layer was formed in the upper parts of the atmosphere shielding the harmful effects of UV radiation on Earth’s life forms (cause and effect).
  4. Single-cell organisms appeared for the first time.3
So, what happened to Earth 3.8 billion years ago? In this article I shall attempt to give the reasons for this phenomenon by discussing consecutively each of the above occurrences that, in my opinion, led life to thrive on our planet.



THE ORIGIN OF WATER ON EARTH

Planet Earth is the only planet in our solar system with huge amounts of water covering 70.8% of its surface. The estimated volume of all the existing water on Earth is about 0.3325 billion cubic miles (1.386 billion cubic km).4 This volume represents a water-sphere with 861 miles (1,385 km) diameter. To put things in perspective, the Moon has a diameter of 2,160 miles (3,476 km).

The origin of Earth’s water still remains an enigma. There are two possibilities: either the water existed at the time the Earth was formed about 4.6 billion years ago or it was deposited on Earth by the bombardment of comets, “wet” asteroids and “wet” meteorites. Since Earth was a molten magma at the time of its formation, probably most of its original water content would have boiled, evaporated and lost to outer space. However, the determining factor for the second possibility is the value of the isotopic ratio of hydrogen in solar bodies. Measurement of the deuterium-to-hydrogen (D/H) ratio of water in different solar bodies over the years did not match the D/H ratio of our oceanic waters.5

Consequently, there must be another source that contributed to the major volume of our water on Earth. Let us investigate the possibility that Earth had a water-ice ring in its orbit during the evolution of our protoplanetary disk.

When our planets were formed, they each had rings around their equator. The rings of the planets that were outside the Roche limit formed moons but those within the limit either remained or disappeared.6 The outside planets Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune still have their rings. The rings of Mercury, Venus, Earth, and Mars vanished.7

To explain this phenomenon, scientists believe that during the evolution of our solar system the orbits of the outside planets were always outside the ice, or snow, or frost line while the orbits of the inner planets were within.8 As a result, water-ice rings were formed and remained around the outside planets, but the rings that were around the inner planets did not contain water-ice. The water would have boiled and evaporated due to the enormous heat of the Sun.

One wonders whether the ice line remained always outside the orbits of the inner planets or migrated inwards within their orbits during the evolution of our protoplanetary disk. If it did migrate to within the orbit of Earth, then it is possible for water-ice rings and chunks of ice to form around Mars and Earth since the protoplanetary disk could still be optically thick.

Until recently mathematical theories and computer simulations about our solar system were based only on our existing model. However, few of these theories were modified and new theories were formulated as a result of the discovery of all kinds of solar systems in space where giant exoplanets are orbiting at close proximity to their parent stars.9

One of the recent new theories is on protoplanetary disks which reveal the behavior of the ice line during the evolution of our solar system. The theory implies that the ice line should migrate inwards as the viscous dissipation decreases with time. This causes the accretion rate to drop and the disk to cool. Due to these conditions, the ice line can reach a distance well within Earth’s orbit [0.60 AU as calculated by S.S. Davis (2005)].10 However, the ice line migrates outward again as the temperature increases once the disk becomes optically thin [as confirmed by P. Garaud & D.N.C. Lin (2007)].10

According to this analysis, it is quite possible that Venus, Earth, and Mars had small amounts of water in their orbits as compared to the huge amount of water that exists in our solar system. The estimated total mass of our water is only 0.02% of the total mass of Earth. This volume of water can easily flood our planet in case the water-ice ring collapses towards Earth.

Assuming Earth had a water-ice ring, the question that follows is: why should it collapse?

As our protoplanetary disk becomes more and more optically thin, the ice line will migrate outwards and is pushed more and more away from the Sun due to its heat. When the ice line approaches the orbit of Earth, the water-ice ring that is facing the Sun will heat-up, boil, and evaporate. However, the evaporated water will conversely condense and re-accrete in the shadow of Earth forming huge chunks of ice and rocks. These chunks are unable to maintain their orbit around the Earth, because of their orbital angular momentum, leading to their collapse. Once the ice-line coincides with the orbit of Earth, the water-ice ring most probably would have completely disappeared. The major portion would have flooded Earth with water creating oceans, while the remaining portion would have been lost to space.

Scientists believe that our planet was bombarded by asteroids or meteorites between 4.0 and 3.8 billion years ago. This period is known as the “Late Heavy Bombardment or LHB”.11 It seems that the LHB did not leave any evidence on Earth. This is due to the dynamic activities of our plant in addition to the active erosion which insures that its surface is continually renewed. However, the LHB could very well be due to the bombardment of the chunks of ice and rocks that were formed from the collapsed water-ice ring. This reasoning is based on the fact that these chunks had the same D/H ratio and contained enough water to create our oceans.

We can thus predict that Earth received the major part of its water from the ring that was in its orbit during a short period of time. Studies of the D/H ratio of the water in our oceans to the waters found in comets and other solar bodies did not match. In fact, ESA Herschel Space Observatory spent years searching for waters in space that are identical to the water on Earth. It discovered recently only one comet (103P/Hartley-2) containing water that is similar in composition to our oceanic waters.12 This is good news because it proves that the type of water on Earth exists in our solar system. Consequently, it is highly probable that the water-ice ring that was in Earth’s orbit had the same D/H ratio as our oceans.

In conclusion, the collapsed water-ice ring most probably flooded our planet with water 3.8 billion years ago. This means that the origin of the major part of our oceans is from one source and not from multi-sources.



ORIGIN OF OXYGEN IN EARTH’S ATMOSPHERE

Most scientists agree that there was no free oxygen in the original primitive atmosphere of early Earth (between 3.8 and 4.6 billion years ago) and that the original atmosphere, some believe, was composed of methane, ammonia, hydrogen, and water.13 Other scientists, on the other hand, believe that as Earth began to develop a solid crust (about 4 billion years ago), gases from volcanic eruptions formed an atmosphere composed of elements similar to those present in volcanic emanations.14 These theories together suggest that Earth’s early atmosphere consisted of: water (H2O), carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), ammonia (NH3), hydrogen (H2), nitrogen (N2), and other small amounts of miscellaneous gases.

It seems that free oxygen was produced on the Earth around 2.5 billion years ago. It was generated by photosynthesizing organisms known as cyanobacteria or blue-green algae. These tiny organisms conduct photosynthesis by using ordinary sunlight, water, and carbon dioxide to produce carbohydrates and oxygen. Since these organisms lived in oceans, the oxygen molecules they produced bubbled up from the oceans into the atmosphere. The presence of oxygen changed the composition of the early atmosphere into the present oxidizing atmosphere consisting of: nitrogen (N2 -78%), oxygen (O2– 21%), and other gases such as water and carbon dioxide.15

However, recent research revealed that oxygen existed in abundance in the atmosphere of planet Earth much earlier in time about 3.46 billion years ago. “An article was published in Nature Geoscience, suggests that oxygen was present in the atmosphere as early as 3.46 billion years ago. This latest research was jointly supported by the NASA Astrobiology Institute, Kagoshima University, University of Tokyo and the Department of Geosciences, and the Pennsylvania State University. Masamichi Hoashi and his co-workers looked at the hematite-rich chert (chert is a brittle sedimentary rock) obtained from the deep drill core in the Pilbara Craton of Western Australia. Hematite is produced through oxidation process, so dating ancient sources of hematite can be used to discover when oxygen was present on Earth”.16

Another article that appeared in New Scientist (issue 2905, published 23 February 2013) suggests that oxygen was present in Earth’s atmosphere as early as 3.8 billion years: “The oldest sedimentary rocks date back 3.8 billion years and have puzzling deposits of oxides”.2

There seems to be a problem here! Blue-green algae were producing oxygen in oceans 2.5 billon years ago, but recent research revealed that oxygen existed in abundance on Earth about 1.3 billion years earlier. In the absence of blue-green algae that early in time, what then did produce this oxygen?

Returning to the theory that Earth had a water-ice ring around it could answer this problem. When the water-ice ring collapsed and entered the early atmosphere of the Earth, a large percentage of its water-ice evaporated due to friction. Since the ring contained at least 1.386x1018 tons of water, a large part of the atmosphere became completely saturated with water vapor extending from the surface of the Earth to very high levels in the atmosphere. Water molecules and dust particles from volcanic eruptions formed enormous electrically charged clouds over the Earth’s surface. As a result, lightening with immense intensity dominated the skies of our planet. These new conditions paved the way for the production of oxygen and ozone by the following two methods:

PHOTOCHEMICAL DISSOCIATION17

The photochemical dissociation hypothesis indicates that ozone is produced in the upper atmosphere through photochemical reactions involving UV radiation and water:

2H2O + UV radiation = 2H2 + O2 and

2O2 + UV radiation = O3 + O and

O + O2 = O3

This means that an ozone layer and oxygen were formed in the upper levels of the atmosphere. The ozone layer shielded the ultraviolet light and reduced its harmful effects on living forms.

ELECTROLYTIC OXYGEN AND OZONE GENERATION

Together, the highly charged clouds and the surface of Earth acted as a gigantic electrolytic oxygen and ozone generator. The discharge of electrons (during lightening, between the charged clouds and Earth’s surface) dissociated water molecules and produced hydrogen, oxygen, and ozone. It is to be noted that ozone is created in nature by lightning and can be smelled after a storm.18 The newly formed ozone ascended to the upper levels of the atmosphere and joined in the formation of the ozone shield. While the newly formed free oxygen combined with the gases of the original primitive atmosphere to form an intermediate atmosphere about 3.8 billion years ago. For example:

1. Oxygen combined with methane to produce carbon dioxide and water: (CH4 + 2O2 = CO2 + 2H2O)

2. Oxygen combined with ammonia to produce nitrogen and water: (4NH3 + 3O2 = 2N2 + 6H2O)

3. Hydrogen combined with oxygen to form water: (2H2 + O2 = 2H2O)

The newly formed intermediate atmosphere consisted mainly of: nitrogen, carbon dioxide, hydrogen, water, and small amount of oxygen. A large percentage of the oxygen that was generated formed the ozone layer and combined with the gases of the early atmosphere.

In conclusion, the collapsed water-ice ring produced an oxygen enriched atmosphere and an ozone shield 3.8 billion years ago on our planet.

 

suhail jalbout

New Member
CONTINUATION

ORIGIN OF LIFE ON EARTH

Life appeared on Earth around 3.8 billion years ago.3 Its origin is still being unraveled by scientists. Even though it is believed that the first living forms on our planet arose from inanimate matter, creating single-cell organisms in laboratories is still beyond the human reach. One wonders as to whether the origin of single-cell organisms was a by-product of galactic dynamic conditions or due to planetary dynamic conditions.

The question that follows is: how can this issue be resolved in the interim period? I believe that the most logical approach to solving this problem is by using estimations. In the forthcoming analysis, I have developed two equations to estimate the number of single-cell organisms in our galaxy that were created during the formation of stars and the number of single-cells that were created on Earth-like planets. However, before I proceed, it is important to discuss the existence of the major components that are necessary for the formation of single-cell organisms in space and on Earth-like planets.


WATER

Recent studies revealed that water plays an important role and it is an essential component in star formation.19 Stars cannot form without the prior presence of water and single-cell organisms cannot form without the prior presence of water. Every star in our galaxy has water in its orbit. However, Earth-like planets receive their water from the bombardment of comets, asteroids, and/or collapsed water-ice rings. These bodies may already contain single-cell organisms in a frozen state. We can thus conclude that water, which is essential for the emergence of life, is available in space and on Earth-like planets.

ORGANIC COMPOUNDS

Organic compounds, which are the building blocks of single-cell organisms, exist in space.20 These compounds can also be produced on Earth as per Stanley Miller and Harold Urey experiment.21 However, their experiment does not eliminate the probability that organic compounds may have been deposited on Earth-like planets by the bombardment of comets, asteroids, and/or collapsed water-ice rings. In conclusion the essential building blocks for living cells exist in space and on Earth-like planets.

ENERGY

The energies that are produced on Earth-like planets, after they receive their water, are: lightning, earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, high winds, tsunamis, hurricanes and tornados, bombardment from comets and asteroids, and finally tidal waves caused by their moons if they have them. These energies are incomparable to the energies that are produced during the formation of stars. When a formed sphere ignites to become a star, billions of tons of matter eject from its surface. Some of the ejected matter is dispersed in space; others fall back on the sphere. Those emitted from a large area around the sphere’s equator go through the disk that surrounds it. The speed of the emission is very close to the speed of light. Since energy and mass are interrelated, the matter that penetrates the disk will have tremendous power. The collision between the emitted energies and matter from the new born star, with the existing matter in the disk that surrounds it, can potentially produce single-cell organisms.

We observe that there is no comparison between the energies that are produced on Earth-like planets and those produced during the formation of nuclear stations (stars) in space. Based on this, I developed the following life emergence equations to estimate the number of single-cell organisms in our galaxy:

EMERGENCE EQUATION DUE TO STAR FORMATION

Let:

Ng = Fa x Fb x Fc x Fd x Fe x Ff

Where:

Ng = the estimated number of single-cells that are produced during the formation of stars

Fa = the estimated number of stars in our galaxy (200 x 109)

Fb = the fraction of stars that have water in their orbit (100%)

Fc = the estimated amount of water orbiting our Sun (o.933 x 1025 tons of water)22

Fd = the fraction of stars with an average amount of water as has our Sun (50%)

Fe = the fraction of stars that can produce life (100%)

Ff = the estimated number of single-cells that are created per 1 ton of water (1/109). [Estimated life emergence factor]

Therefore,

Ng = 9.33 x 1026 single-cells (pessimistic estimate)

EMERGENCE EQUATION DUE TO EARTH-LIKE PLANETS

Let:

Np = Fa x Fb x Fc x Fd x Fe x Ff x Fg

Where:

Np = the estimated number of single-cells that are created on Earth-like planets

Fa = the estimated number of stars in our galaxy (200 x 109)

Fb = the fraction of stars that have planetary systems (50%)

Fc = the fraction of the planetary systems that have Earth-like planets (50%)

Fd = the fraction of Earth-like planets that can produce life (100%)

Fe = the estimated amount of water on Earth (1.38 x 1018 tons of water)

Ff = the fraction of Earth-like planets with an average amount of water as Earth (50%)

Fg = the estimated number of single-cells that are created per 1 ton of water (1/109). [Estimated life emergence factor]

Therefore,

Np = 3.45 x 1019 single-cells (optimistic estimate)

RESULS

Dividing Ng / Np gives:

Ng/Np = 27,000,000

This means the creation of single-cell organisms during the formation of stars is 27 million times more probable than their creation on Earth-like planets.

From the above estimates, it is more likely that the origin of life on Earth is not a by-product of planetary dynamic activities but due to galactic dynamic activities. There are unconceivable interactions between matter and energies that take place during the birth of a new star that do not exist on any planet or moon. These energies interact with matter to produce the essential life molecules, combine and house them in micro-bubbles, and create single-cell living forms. As stars, planets, moons, asteroids, comets, and planetoids are created during the formation of a galaxy, single-cell organisms are also created. They are born whenever a star is born. Since 70% of their mass is water, most probably they exist where ever water-ice exists such as: “wet” asteroids, “wet” meteorites, comets, and water-ice rings orbiting planets. When these bodies fall on planets or moons, they bring with them single-cell organisms in a frozen state. Depending on the environment of planets and moons, the organisms may survive or die or remain in a frozen state above or below the surface. Because these organisms are extremely minute in size, finding them in space or on celestial bodies is a difficult task.

It is imperative to realize that the single cell organisms have very special characteristics: they survive in space and they live after defrosting as will be explained below.

Scientists from Open University in Milton, Keynes, UK conducted an experiment to investigate whether bacteria can survive in space. If they do, then astronauts can use them to recycle life supporting systems and perform “bio-mining” activities on planets and moons. Bacteria were collected from the cliffs of Beer, a small English fishing village, and were placed on and in small chunks of cliff rock which were sent to the International Space Station (ISS) on board of the European Space Agency (ESA). The rocks were put on the exterior of the ISS. Scientists inspected the bacteria after 553 days and found many were still alive. The survivors resisted the exposure to extreme ultraviolet light, cosmic rays, dramatic temperature shifts and solar wind.23

Another interesting experiment revealed that very old single-cell organisms can be brought back to life after being in a frozen state for millions of years. A team of scientists led by Professor Paul Falkowski from Rutgers University, NJ, USA conducted experiments on Antarctic ice samples that harbor the oldest known frozen bacteria. The 8 million years old organisms came back to life inside a culture flask after a short period of time.24

CONCLUSION

In conclusion, the origin of life on Earth most probably came about 3.8 billion years ago from the collapsed water-ice ring, which was in its orbit. As a result, the Earth was flooded with water, and single-cell organisms populated our planet with life. In addition, the newly formed intermediate atmosphere and the ozone shield provided favorable conditions for the simple primitive life forms to live anywhere they can find food on our planet. They grew, and developed into very complex organisms. Some of these complex organisms produced free oxygen around 2.5 billion years ago which increased the amount of oxygen in the intermediate atmosphere to 21% forming our present atmosphere. The presence of the three basic elements for the survival of life forms on our planet paved the way for our existence.



DOES THE SPARK OF LIFE EXISTS IN PROTOPLANETARY DISKS?


The mystery of how life sprung from non-living matter has long eluded scientists. Many experiments were conducted in laboratories to produce microscopic life but without success. Scientists simulated lightening, volcano eruptions, and applied powerful laser beams on gases, dust, chemical soup etc. The end result was only to create the building blocks of life. We can thus conclude that the spark of life does not exist on any planet. This implies that microscopic life is created in space and then it seeds the planets by the bombardment of asteroids, comets, meteorite and/or collapsed water-ice rings orbiting planets.

The question that follows is: where is life created in space?

The most logical place is in protoplanetary disks because they form planets where life can thrive on them if favorable conditions are provided for their existence and growth. This implies that the protoplanetary disk contains the organic compounds (the building blocks for life) as well as the spark which is required for the emergence of life.

ORGANIC COMPOUNDS

Geophysicist Fred Cesia, of the university of Chicago, and astrobiologist Scott Sandford, of NASA’s Ames Research Center in California, built a computer model of protoplanetary disk of dust grains. The objective of the study is to test whether organic molecules could have formed in the disk prior to the formation of the planets.25

Their computer study revealed that molecular bonds of compounds with the dust particles could be broken and the atoms could recombine to form complex organic molecules in the protoplanetary disk. However, to create life from these life building blocks, a spark of life is still needed.

THE SPARK OF LIFE

In CERN, the Large Hydron Collider can potentially create microscopic black holes. If this is feasible, then Nano black holes can be created in protoplanetary disks. When a nebula is converted into a sphere with a protoplanetary disk, millions of tons of matter are ejected from the sphere when it ignites to become a star. The speed of the ejected matter is very near to the speed of light. This matter will collide with the material of the protoplanetary disk forming millions of Nano black holes.

Hawking came up with a theory stating that black holes evaporate and release radiation during this process which became known as Hawking Radiation. In Feb 5, 2016, Hawking suggested, in a lecture, to power Earth with mini black holes: “A mountain sized black hole would give off X-rays and gamma-rays at a rate of about 10 million megawatts, enough to power the world’s electricity supply”.26

So what would happen to the Nano black holes in the protoplanetary disk?

A portion of the Nano black holes will evaporate releasing Hawking radiation, while the balance will merge with each other releasing gravitational waves and forming mini black holes. The mini black holes will evaporating after (T1) time releasing also Hawking radiation.

Let us assume that the Nano black holes merge together to form mini black holes. The question now is: how long it will take for Hawking’s mountain sized mini black hole (mBH) to evaporate before the end of the protoplanetary disk life span? The time can be calculated from Hawking equation as follows:27

T1 = 2.097 x 10^67 x (M1/Mo)^3

T1 = the time for the mBH to evaporate (years)

M1 = mass of the mBH. Assume it is double the mass of the Egyptian Great Pyramid (2x6x10^9 Kg)

Mo = solar mass 1.989 x 10^30 Kg.

Substituting the above numbers gives:

T1 = 4.53 x 10^6 years

The estimated life span of protoplanetary disks is 10x10^6 years, This means the mini black holes will evaporate at about 45% of the disk’s life span releasing enormous energy that is thousands of times more than the requirements of our planet.

CONCLUSION

Probably the gravitational waves that are produced during the merge of the Nano black holes plus the released Hawking radiation from the Nano and the mini black holes, during the evaporation process, act as a spark on the existing life building blocks in the protoplanetary disk to create life.




------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------





REFERENCES

5. www.nature.com/nature/journal/v478/n7368/fig_tab/nature10519_F2.html

6. abyss.uoregon.edu/~js/glossary/roche_limit.html

22. The estimated mass of ammonia, methane, and water ices in our solar disk was 1.4% of the solar mass. The solar mass is approximately 2x1027 metric tons. Assuming the three icy compounds had equal mass, then the total mass of water in our solar disk was 0.933x1025 tons.

(atropos.as.arizona.edu/aiz/teaching/nats102/mario/solar_system.html)

 

Habibibi

New Member
CONTINUATION

ORIGIN OF LIFE ON EARTH

Life appeared on Earth around 3.8 billion years ago.3 Its origin is still being unraveled by scientists. Even though it is believed that the first living forms on our planet arose from inanimate matter, creating single-cell organisms in laboratories is still beyond the human reach. One wonders as to whether the origin of single-cell organisms was a by-product of galactic dynamic conditions or due to planetary dynamic conditions.

The question that follows is: how can this issue be resolved in the interim period? I believe that the most logical approach to solving this problem is by using estimations. In the forthcoming analysis, I have developed two equations to estimate the number of single-cell organisms in our galaxy that were created during the formation of stars and the number of single-cells that were created on Earth-like planets. However, before I proceed, it is important to discuss the existence of the major components that are necessary for the formation of single-cell organisms in space and on Earth-like planets.


WATER

Recent studies revealed that water plays an important role and it is an essential component in star formation.19 Stars cannot form without the prior presence of water and single-cell organisms cannot form without the prior presence of water. Every star in our galaxy has water in its orbit. However, Earth-like planets receive their water from the bombardment of comets, asteroids, and/or collapsed water-ice rings. These bodies may already contain single-cell organisms in a frozen state. We can thus conclude that water, which is essential for the emergence of life, is available in space and on Earth-like planets.

ORGANIC COMPOUNDS

Organic compounds, which are the building blocks of single-cell organisms, exist in space.20 These compounds can also be produced on Earth as per Stanley Miller and Harold Urey experiment.21 However, their experiment does not eliminate the probability that organic compounds may have been deposited on Earth-like planets by the bombardment of comets, asteroids, and/or collapsed water-ice rings. In conclusion the essential building blocks for living cells exist in space and on Earth-like planets.

ENERGY

The energies that are produced on Earth-like planets, after they receive their water, are: lightning, earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, high winds, tsunamis, hurricanes and tornados, bombardment from comets and asteroids, and finally tidal waves caused by their moons if they have them. These energies are incomparable to the energies that are produced during the formation of stars. When a formed sphere ignites to become a star, billions of tons of matter eject from its surface. Some of the ejected matter is dispersed in space; others fall back on the sphere. Those emitted from a large area around the sphere’s equator go through the disk that surrounds it. The speed of the emission is very close to the speed of light. Since energy and mass are interrelated, the matter that penetrates the disk will have tremendous power. The collision between the emitted energies and matter from the new born star, with the existing matter in the disk that surrounds it, can potentially produce single-cell organisms.

We observe that there is no comparison between the energies that are produced on Earth-like planets and those produced during the formation of nuclear stations (stars) in space. Based on this, I developed the following life emergence equations to estimate the number of single-cell organisms in our galaxy:

EMERGENCE EQUATION DUE TO STAR FORMATION

Let:

Ng = Fa x Fb x Fc x Fd x Fe x Ff

Where:

Ng = the estimated number of single-cells that are produced during the formation of stars

Fa = the estimated number of stars in our galaxy (200 x 109)

Fb = the fraction of stars that have water in their orbit (100%)

Fc = the estimated amount of water orbiting our Sun (o.933 x 1025 tons of water)22

Fd = the fraction of stars with an average amount of water as has our Sun (50%)

Fe = the fraction of stars that can produce life (100%)

Ff = the estimated number of single-cells that are created per 1 ton of water (1/109). [Estimated life emergence factor]

Therefore,

Ng = 9.33 x 1026 single-cells (pessimistic estimate)

EMERGENCE EQUATION DUE TO EARTH-LIKE PLANETS

Let:

Np = Fa x Fb x Fc x Fd x Fe x Ff x Fg

Where:

Np = the estimated number of single-cells that are created on Earth-like planets

Fa = the estimated number of stars in our galaxy (200 x 109)

Fb = the fraction of stars that have planetary systems (50%)

Fc = the fraction of the planetary systems that have Earth-like planets (50%)

Fd = the fraction of Earth-like planets that can produce life (100%)

Fe = the estimated amount of water on Earth (1.38 x 1018 tons of water)

Ff = the fraction of Earth-like planets with an average amount of water as Earth (50%)

Fg = the estimated number of single-cells that are created per 1 ton of water (1/109). [Estimated life emergence factor]

Therefore,

Np = 3.45 x 1019 single-cells (optimistic estimate)

RESULS

Dividing Ng / Np gives:

Ng/Np = 27,000,000

This means the creation of single-cell organisms during the formation of stars is 27 million times more probable than their creation on Earth-like planets.

From the above estimates, it is more likely that the origin of life on Earth is not a by-product of planetary dynamic activities but due to galactic dynamic activities. There are unconceivable interactions between matter and energies that take place during the birth of a new star that do not exist on any planet or moon. These energies interact with matter to produce the essential life molecules, combine and house them in micro-bubbles, and create single-cell living forms. As stars, planets, moons, asteroids, comets, and planetoids are created during the formation of a galaxy, single-cell organisms are also created. They are born whenever a star is born. Since 70% of their mass is water, most probably they exist where ever water-ice exists such as: “wet” asteroids, “wet” meteorites, comets, and water-ice rings orbiting planets. When these bodies fall on planets or moons, they bring with them single-cell organisms in a frozen state. Depending on the environment of planets and moons, the organisms may survive or die or remain in a frozen state above or below the surface. Because these organisms are extremely minute in size, finding them in space or on celestial bodies is a difficult task.

It is imperative to realize that the single cell organisms have very special characteristics: they survive in space and they live after defrosting as will be explained below.

Scientists from Open University in Milton, Keynes, UK conducted an experiment to investigate whether bacteria can survive in space. If they do, then astronauts can use them to recycle life supporting systems and perform “bio-mining” activities on planets and moons. Bacteria were collected from the cliffs of Beer, a small English fishing village, and were placed on and in small chunks of cliff rock which were sent to the International Space Station (ISS) on board of the European Space Agency (ESA). The rocks were put on the exterior of the ISS. Scientists inspected the bacteria after 553 days and found many were still alive. The survivors resisted the exposure to extreme ultraviolet light, cosmic rays, dramatic temperature shifts and solar wind.23

Another interesting experiment revealed that very old single-cell organisms can be brought back to life after being in a frozen state for millions of years. A team of scientists led by Professor Paul Falkowski from Rutgers University, NJ, USA conducted experiments on Antarctic ice samples that harbor the oldest known frozen bacteria. The 8 million years old organisms came back to life inside a culture flask after a short period of time.24

CONCLUSION

In conclusion, the origin of life on Earth most probably came about 3.8 billion years ago from the collapsed water-ice ring, which was in its orbit. As a result, the Earth was flooded with water, and single-cell organisms populated our planet with life. In addition, the newly formed intermediate atmosphere and the ozone shield provided favorable conditions for the simple primitive life forms to live anywhere they can find food on our planet. They grew, and developed into very complex organisms. Some of these complex organisms produced free oxygen around 2.5 billion years ago which increased the amount of oxygen in the intermediate atmosphere to 21% forming our present atmosphere. The presence of the three basic elements for the survival of life forms on our planet paved the way for our existence.



DOES THE SPARK OF LIFE EXISTS IN PROTOPLANETARY DISKS?


The mystery of how life sprung from non-living matter has long eluded scientists. Many experiments were conducted in laboratories to produce microscopic life but without success. Scientists simulated lightening, volcano eruptions, and applied powerful laser beams on gases, dust, chemical soup etc. The end result was only to create the building blocks of life. We can thus conclude that the spark of life does not exist on any planet. This implies that microscopic life is created in space and then it seeds the planets by the bombardment of asteroids, comets, meteorite and/or collapsed water-ice rings orbiting planets.

The question that follows is: where is life created in space?

The most logical place is in protoplanetary disks because they form planets where life can thrive on them if favorable conditions are provided for their existence and growth. This implies that the protoplanetary disk contains the organic compounds (the building blocks for life) as well as the spark which is required for the emergence of life.

ORGANIC COMPOUNDS

Geophysicist Fred Cesia, of the university of Chicago, and astrobiologist Scott Sandford, of NASA’s Ames Research Center in California, built a computer model of protoplanetary disk of dust grains. The objective of the study is to test whether organic molecules could have formed in the disk prior to the formation of the planets.25

Their computer study revealed that molecular bonds of compounds with the dust particles could be broken and the atoms could recombine to form complex organic molecules in the protoplanetary disk. However, to create life from these life building blocks, a spark of life is still needed.

THE SPARK OF LIFE

In CERN, the Large Hydron Collider can potentially create microscopic black holes. If this is feasible, then Nano black holes can be created in protoplanetary disks. When a nebula is converted into a sphere with a protoplanetary disk, millions of tons of matter are ejected from the sphere when it ignites to become a star. The speed of the ejected matter is very near to the speed of light. This matter will collide with the material of the protoplanetary disk forming millions of Nano black holes.

Hawking came up with a theory stating that black holes evaporate and release radiation during this process which became known as Hawking Radiation. In Feb 5, 2016, Hawking suggested, in a lecture, to power Earth with mini black holes: “A mountain sized black hole would give off X-rays and gamma-rays at a rate of about 10 million megawatts, enough to power the world’s electricity supply”.26

So what would happen to the Nano black holes in the protoplanetary disk?

A portion of the Nano black holes will evaporate releasing Hawking radiation, while the balance will merge with each other releasing gravitational waves and forming mini black holes. The mini black holes will evaporating after (T1) time releasing also Hawking radiation.

Let us assume that the Nano black holes merge together to form mini black holes. The question now is: how long it will take for Hawking’s mountain sized mini black hole (mBH) to evaporate before the end of the protoplanetary disk life span? The time can be calculated from Hawking equation as follows:27

T1 = 2.097 x 10^67 x (M1/Mo)^3

T1 = the time for the mBH to evaporate (years)

M1 = mass of the mBH. Assume it is double the mass of the Egyptian Great Pyramid (2x6x10^9 Kg)

Mo = solar mass 1.989 x 10^30 Kg.

Substituting the above numbers gives:

T1 = 4.53 x 10^6 years

The estimated life span of protoplanetary disks is 10x10^6 years, This means the mini black holes will evaporate at about 45% of the disk’s life span releasing enormous energy that is thousands of times more than the requirements of our planet.

CONCLUSION

Probably the gravitational waves that are produced during the merge of the Nano black holes plus the released Hawking radiation from the Nano and the mini black holes, during the evaporation process, act as a spark on the existing life building blocks in the protoplanetary disk to create life.




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REFERENCES

5. www.nature.com/nature/journal/v478/n7368/fig_tab/nature10519_F2.html

6. abyss.uoregon.edu/~js/glossary/roche_limit.html

22. The estimated mass of ammonia, methane, and water ices in our solar disk was 1.4% of the solar mass. The solar mass is approximately 2x1027 metric tons. Assuming the three icy compounds had equal mass, then the total mass of water in our solar disk was 0.933x1025 tons.

(atropos.as.arizona.edu/aiz/teaching/nats102/mario/solar_system.html)

The answer to your question is in the book of Enoch..... simple.... no need to type up a whole book of theories
 

My Moria Moon

Legendary Member
Orange Room Supporter
WHAT IS THE ORIGIN OF OUR EXISTENCE?

BY SUHAIL M. JALBOUT



Why did life emerge on our planet and how? These are questions that have been for many years the concern of humans in general and scientists in particular. If a logical explanation can be presented to reveal the secrets of life on our planet, then it may be possible to predict the process and possibilities for the emergence of similar life in our universe.

Most life forms on Earth require three main basic elements to survive. These elements are: water, oxygen, and ozone. There is scientific evidence to confirm that these elements, including single-cell organisms, occurred on Earth at approximately the same time 3.8 billion years ago. At this early date, Earth experienced the following dramatic changes which triggered the emergence of life and its survival:


  1. Oceans were formed on Earth’s surface.1
  2. Its original primitive atmosphere became oxygen enriched almost to the same level as ours today.2
  3. An ozone layer was formed in the upper parts of the atmosphere shielding the harmful effects of UV radiation on Earth’s life forms (cause and effect).
  4. Single-cell organisms appeared for the first time.3
So, what happened to Earth 3.8 billion years ago? In this article I shall attempt to give the reasons for this phenomenon by discussing consecutively each of the above occurrences that, in my opinion, led life to thrive on our planet.



THE ORIGIN OF WATER ON EARTH

Planet Earth is the only planet in our solar system with huge amounts of water covering 70.8% of its surface. The estimated volume of all the existing water on Earth is about 0.3325 billion cubic miles (1.386 billion cubic km).4 This volume represents a water-sphere with 861 miles (1,385 km) diameter. To put things in perspective, the Moon has a diameter of 2,160 miles (3,476 km).

The origin of Earth’s water still remains an enigma. There are two possibilities: either the water existed at the time the Earth was formed about 4.6 billion years ago or it was deposited on Earth by the bombardment of comets, “wet” asteroids and “wet” meteorites. Since Earth was a molten magma at the time of its formation, probably most of its original water content would have boiled, evaporated and lost to outer space. However, the determining factor for the second possibility is the value of the isotopic ratio of hydrogen in solar bodies. Measurement of the deuterium-to-hydrogen (D/H) ratio of water in different solar bodies over the years did not match the D/H ratio of our oceanic waters.5

Consequently, there must be another source that contributed to the major volume of our water on Earth. Let us investigate the possibility that Earth had a water-ice ring in its orbit during the evolution of our protoplanetary disk.

When our planets were formed, they each had rings around their equator. The rings of the planets that were outside the Roche limit formed moons but those within the limit either remained or disappeared.6 The outside planets Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune still have their rings. The rings of Mercury, Venus, Earth, and Mars vanished.7

To explain this phenomenon, scientists believe that during the evolution of our solar system the orbits of the outside planets were always outside the ice, or snow, or frost line while the orbits of the inner planets were within.8 As a result, water-ice rings were formed and remained around the outside planets, but the rings that were around the inner planets did not contain water-ice. The water would have boiled and evaporated due to the enormous heat of the Sun.

One wonders whether the ice line remained always outside the orbits of the inner planets or migrated inwards within their orbits during the evolution of our protoplanetary disk. If it did migrate to within the orbit of Earth, then it is possible for water-ice rings and chunks of ice to form around Mars and Earth since the protoplanetary disk could still be optically thick.

Until recently mathematical theories and computer simulations about our solar system were based only on our existing model. However, few of these theories were modified and new theories were formulated as a result of the discovery of all kinds of solar systems in space where giant exoplanets are orbiting at close proximity to their parent stars.9

One of the recent new theories is on protoplanetary disks which reveal the behavior of the ice line during the evolution of our solar system. The theory implies that the ice line should migrate inwards as the viscous dissipation decreases with time. This causes the accretion rate to drop and the disk to cool. Due to these conditions, the ice line can reach a distance well within Earth’s orbit [0.60 AU as calculated by S.S. Davis (2005)].10 However, the ice line migrates outward again as the temperature increases once the disk becomes optically thin [as confirmed by P. Garaud & D.N.C. Lin (2007)].10

According to this analysis, it is quite possible that Venus, Earth, and Mars had small amounts of water in their orbits as compared to the huge amount of water that exists in our solar system. The estimated total mass of our water is only 0.02% of the total mass of Earth. This volume of water can easily flood our planet in case the water-ice ring collapses towards Earth.

Assuming Earth had a water-ice ring, the question that follows is: why should it collapse?

As our protoplanetary disk becomes more and more optically thin, the ice line will migrate outwards and is pushed more and more away from the Sun due to its heat. When the ice line approaches the orbit of Earth, the water-ice ring that is facing the Sun will heat-up, boil, and evaporate. However, the evaporated water will conversely condense and re-accrete in the shadow of Earth forming huge chunks of ice and rocks. These chunks are unable to maintain their orbit around the Earth, because of their orbital angular momentum, leading to their collapse. Once the ice-line coincides with the orbit of Earth, the water-ice ring most probably would have completely disappeared. The major portion would have flooded Earth with water creating oceans, while the remaining portion would have been lost to space.

Scientists believe that our planet was bombarded by asteroids or meteorites between 4.0 and 3.8 billion years ago. This period is known as the “Late Heavy Bombardment or LHB”.11 It seems that the LHB did not leave any evidence on Earth. This is due to the dynamic activities of our plant in addition to the active erosion which insures that its surface is continually renewed. However, the LHB could very well be due to the bombardment of the chunks of ice and rocks that were formed from the collapsed water-ice ring. This reasoning is based on the fact that these chunks had the same D/H ratio and contained enough water to create our oceans.

We can thus predict that Earth received the major part of its water from the ring that was in its orbit during a short period of time. Studies of the D/H ratio of the water in our oceans to the waters found in comets and other solar bodies did not match. In fact, ESA Herschel Space Observatory spent years searching for waters in space that are identical to the water on Earth. It discovered recently only one comet (103P/Hartley-2) containing water that is similar in composition to our oceanic waters.12 This is good news because it proves that the type of water on Earth exists in our solar system. Consequently, it is highly probable that the water-ice ring that was in Earth’s orbit had the same D/H ratio as our oceans.

In conclusion, the collapsed water-ice ring most probably flooded our planet with water 3.8 billion years ago. This means that the origin of the major part of our oceans is from one source and not from multi-sources.



ORIGIN OF OXYGEN IN EARTH’S ATMOSPHERE

Most scientists agree that there was no free oxygen in the original primitive atmosphere of early Earth (between 3.8 and 4.6 billion years ago) and that the original atmosphere, some believe, was composed of methane, ammonia, hydrogen, and water.13 Other scientists, on the other hand, believe that as Earth began to develop a solid crust (about 4 billion years ago), gases from volcanic eruptions formed an atmosphere composed of elements similar to those present in volcanic emanations.14 These theories together suggest that Earth’s early atmosphere consisted of: water (H2O), carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), ammonia (NH3), hydrogen (H2), nitrogen (N2), and other small amounts of miscellaneous gases.

It seems that free oxygen was produced on the Earth around 2.5 billion years ago. It was generated by photosynthesizing organisms known as cyanobacteria or blue-green algae. These tiny organisms conduct photosynthesis by using ordinary sunlight, water, and carbon dioxide to produce carbohydrates and oxygen. Since these organisms lived in oceans, the oxygen molecules they produced bubbled up from the oceans into the atmosphere. The presence of oxygen changed the composition of the early atmosphere into the present oxidizing atmosphere consisting of: nitrogen (N2 -78%), oxygen (O2– 21%), and other gases such as water and carbon dioxide.15

However, recent research revealed that oxygen existed in abundance in the atmosphere of planet Earth much earlier in time about 3.46 billion years ago. “An article was published in Nature Geoscience, suggests that oxygen was present in the atmosphere as early as 3.46 billion years ago. This latest research was jointly supported by the NASA Astrobiology Institute, Kagoshima University, University of Tokyo and the Department of Geosciences, and the Pennsylvania State University. Masamichi Hoashi and his co-workers looked at the hematite-rich chert (chert is a brittle sedimentary rock) obtained from the deep drill core in the Pilbara Craton of Western Australia. Hematite is produced through oxidation process, so dating ancient sources of hematite can be used to discover when oxygen was present on Earth”.16

Another article that appeared in New Scientist (issue 2905, published 23 February 2013) suggests that oxygen was present in Earth’s atmosphere as early as 3.8 billion years: “The oldest sedimentary rocks date back 3.8 billion years and have puzzling deposits of oxides”.2

There seems to be a problem here! Blue-green algae were producing oxygen in oceans 2.5 billon years ago, but recent research revealed that oxygen existed in abundance on Earth about 1.3 billion years earlier. In the absence of blue-green algae that early in time, what then did produce this oxygen?

Returning to the theory that Earth had a water-ice ring around it could answer this problem. When the water-ice ring collapsed and entered the early atmosphere of the Earth, a large percentage of its water-ice evaporated due to friction. Since the ring contained at least 1.386x1018 tons of water, a large part of the atmosphere became completely saturated with water vapor extending from the surface of the Earth to very high levels in the atmosphere. Water molecules and dust particles from volcanic eruptions formed enormous electrically charged clouds over the Earth’s surface. As a result, lightening with immense intensity dominated the skies of our planet. These new conditions paved the way for the production of oxygen and ozone by the following two methods:

PHOTOCHEMICAL DISSOCIATION17

The photochemical dissociation hypothesis indicates that ozone is produced in the upper atmosphere through photochemical reactions involving UV radiation and water:

2H2O + UV radiation = 2H2 + O2 and

2O2 + UV radiation = O3 + O and

O + O2 = O3

This means that an ozone layer and oxygen were formed in the upper levels of the atmosphere. The ozone layer shielded the ultraviolet light and reduced its harmful effects on living forms.

ELECTROLYTIC OXYGEN AND OZONE GENERATION

Together, the highly charged clouds and the surface of Earth acted as a gigantic electrolytic oxygen and ozone generator. The discharge of electrons (during lightening, between the charged clouds and Earth’s surface) dissociated water molecules and produced hydrogen, oxygen, and ozone. It is to be noted that ozone is created in nature by lightning and can be smelled after a storm.18 The newly formed ozone ascended to the upper levels of the atmosphere and joined in the formation of the ozone shield. While the newly formed free oxygen combined with the gases of the original primitive atmosphere to form an intermediate atmosphere about 3.8 billion years ago. For example:

1. Oxygen combined with methane to produce carbon dioxide and water: (CH4 + 2O2 = CO2 + 2H2O)

2. Oxygen combined with ammonia to produce nitrogen and water: (4NH3 + 3O2 = 2N2 + 6H2O)

3. Hydrogen combined with oxygen to form water: (2H2 + O2 = 2H2O)

The newly formed intermediate atmosphere consisted mainly of: nitrogen, carbon dioxide, hydrogen, water, and small amount of oxygen. A large percentage of the oxygen that was generated formed the ozone layer and combined with the gases of the early atmosphere.

In conclusion, the collapsed water-ice ring produced an oxygen enriched atmosphere and an ozone shield 3.8 billion years ago on our planet.

CONTINUATION

ORIGIN OF LIFE ON EARTH

Life appeared on Earth around 3.8 billion years ago.3 Its origin is still being unraveled by scientists. Even though it is believed that the first living forms on our planet arose from inanimate matter, creating single-cell organisms in laboratories is still beyond the human reach. One wonders as to whether the origin of single-cell organisms was a by-product of galactic dynamic conditions or due to planetary dynamic conditions.

The question that follows is: how can this issue be resolved in the interim period? I believe that the most logical approach to solving this problem is by using estimations. In the forthcoming analysis, I have developed two equations to estimate the number of single-cell organisms in our galaxy that were created during the formation of stars and the number of single-cells that were created on Earth-like planets. However, before I proceed, it is important to discuss the existence of the major components that are necessary for the formation of single-cell organisms in space and on Earth-like planets.


WATER

Recent studies revealed that water plays an important role and it is an essential component in star formation.19 Stars cannot form without the prior presence of water and single-cell organisms cannot form without the prior presence of water. Every star in our galaxy has water in its orbit. However, Earth-like planets receive their water from the bombardment of comets, asteroids, and/or collapsed water-ice rings. These bodies may already contain single-cell organisms in a frozen state. We can thus conclude that water, which is essential for the emergence of life, is available in space and on Earth-like planets.

ORGANIC COMPOUNDS

Organic compounds, which are the building blocks of single-cell organisms, exist in space.20 These compounds can also be produced on Earth as per Stanley Miller and Harold Urey experiment.21 However, their experiment does not eliminate the probability that organic compounds may have been deposited on Earth-like planets by the bombardment of comets, asteroids, and/or collapsed water-ice rings. In conclusion the essential building blocks for living cells exist in space and on Earth-like planets.

ENERGY

The energies that are produced on Earth-like planets, after they receive their water, are: lightning, earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, high winds, tsunamis, hurricanes and tornados, bombardment from comets and asteroids, and finally tidal waves caused by their moons if they have them. These energies are incomparable to the energies that are produced during the formation of stars. When a formed sphere ignites to become a star, billions of tons of matter eject from its surface. Some of the ejected matter is dispersed in space; others fall back on the sphere. Those emitted from a large area around the sphere’s equator go through the disk that surrounds it. The speed of the emission is very close to the speed of light. Since energy and mass are interrelated, the matter that penetrates the disk will have tremendous power. The collision between the emitted energies and matter from the new born star, with the existing matter in the disk that surrounds it, can potentially produce single-cell organisms.

We observe that there is no comparison between the energies that are produced on Earth-like planets and those produced during the formation of nuclear stations (stars) in space. Based on this, I developed the following life emergence equations to estimate the number of single-cell organisms in our galaxy:

EMERGENCE EQUATION DUE TO STAR FORMATION

Let:

Ng = Fa x Fb x Fc x Fd x Fe x Ff

Where:

Ng = the estimated number of single-cells that are produced during the formation of stars

Fa = the estimated number of stars in our galaxy (200 x 109)

Fb = the fraction of stars that have water in their orbit (100%)

Fc = the estimated amount of water orbiting our Sun (o.933 x 1025 tons of water)22

Fd = the fraction of stars with an average amount of water as has our Sun (50%)

Fe = the fraction of stars that can produce life (100%)

Ff = the estimated number of single-cells that are created per 1 ton of water (1/109). [Estimated life emergence factor]

Therefore,

Ng = 9.33 x 1026 single-cells (pessimistic estimate)

EMERGENCE EQUATION DUE TO EARTH-LIKE PLANETS

Let:

Np = Fa x Fb x Fc x Fd x Fe x Ff x Fg

Where:

Np = the estimated number of single-cells that are created on Earth-like planets

Fa = the estimated number of stars in our galaxy (200 x 109)

Fb = the fraction of stars that have planetary systems (50%)

Fc = the fraction of the planetary systems that have Earth-like planets (50%)

Fd = the fraction of Earth-like planets that can produce life (100%)

Fe = the estimated amount of water on Earth (1.38 x 1018 tons of water)

Ff = the fraction of Earth-like planets with an average amount of water as Earth (50%)

Fg = the estimated number of single-cells that are created per 1 ton of water (1/109). [Estimated life emergence factor]

Therefore,

Np = 3.45 x 1019 single-cells (optimistic estimate)

RESULS

Dividing Ng / Np gives:

Ng/Np = 27,000,000

This means the creation of single-cell organisms during the formation of stars is 27 million times more probable than their creation on Earth-like planets.

From the above estimates, it is more likely that the origin of life on Earth is not a by-product of planetary dynamic activities but due to galactic dynamic activities. There are unconceivable interactions between matter and energies that take place during the birth of a new star that do not exist on any planet or moon. These energies interact with matter to produce the essential life molecules, combine and house them in micro-bubbles, and create single-cell living forms. As stars, planets, moons, asteroids, comets, and planetoids are created during the formation of a galaxy, single-cell organisms are also created. They are born whenever a star is born. Since 70% of their mass is water, most probably they exist where ever water-ice exists such as: “wet” asteroids, “wet” meteorites, comets, and water-ice rings orbiting planets. When these bodies fall on planets or moons, they bring with them single-cell organisms in a frozen state. Depending on the environment of planets and moons, the organisms may survive or die or remain in a frozen state above or below the surface. Because these organisms are extremely minute in size, finding them in space or on celestial bodies is a difficult task.

It is imperative to realize that the single cell organisms have very special characteristics: they survive in space and they live after defrosting as will be explained below.

Scientists from Open University in Milton, Keynes, UK conducted an experiment to investigate whether bacteria can survive in space. If they do, then astronauts can use them to recycle life supporting systems and perform “bio-mining” activities on planets and moons. Bacteria were collected from the cliffs of Beer, a small English fishing village, and were placed on and in small chunks of cliff rock which were sent to the International Space Station (ISS) on board of the European Space Agency (ESA). The rocks were put on the exterior of the ISS. Scientists inspected the bacteria after 553 days and found many were still alive. The survivors resisted the exposure to extreme ultraviolet light, cosmic rays, dramatic temperature shifts and solar wind.23

Another interesting experiment revealed that very old single-cell organisms can be brought back to life after being in a frozen state for millions of years. A team of scientists led by Professor Paul Falkowski from Rutgers University, NJ, USA conducted experiments on Antarctic ice samples that harbor the oldest known frozen bacteria. The 8 million years old organisms came back to life inside a culture flask after a short period of time.24

CONCLUSION

In conclusion, the origin of life on Earth most probably came about 3.8 billion years ago from the collapsed water-ice ring, which was in its orbit. As a result, the Earth was flooded with water, and single-cell organisms populated our planet with life. In addition, the newly formed intermediate atmosphere and the ozone shield provided favorable conditions for the simple primitive life forms to live anywhere they can find food on our planet. They grew, and developed into very complex organisms. Some of these complex organisms produced free oxygen around 2.5 billion years ago which increased the amount of oxygen in the intermediate atmosphere to 21% forming our present atmosphere. The presence of the three basic elements for the survival of life forms on our planet paved the way for our existence.



DOES THE SPARK OF LIFE EXISTS IN PROTOPLANETARY DISKS?


The mystery of how life sprung from non-living matter has long eluded scientists. Many experiments were conducted in laboratories to produce microscopic life but without success. Scientists simulated lightening, volcano eruptions, and applied powerful laser beams on gases, dust, chemical soup etc. The end result was only to create the building blocks of life. We can thus conclude that the spark of life does not exist on any planet. This implies that microscopic life is created in space and then it seeds the planets by the bombardment of asteroids, comets, meteorite and/or collapsed water-ice rings orbiting planets.

The question that follows is: where is life created in space?

The most logical place is in protoplanetary disks because they form planets where life can thrive on them if favorable conditions are provided for their existence and growth. This implies that the protoplanetary disk contains the organic compounds (the building blocks for life) as well as the spark which is required for the emergence of life.

ORGANIC COMPOUNDS

Geophysicist Fred Cesia, of the university of Chicago, and astrobiologist Scott Sandford, of NASA’s Ames Research Center in California, built a computer model of protoplanetary disk of dust grains. The objective of the study is to test whether organic molecules could have formed in the disk prior to the formation of the planets.25

Their computer study revealed that molecular bonds of compounds with the dust particles could be broken and the atoms could recombine to form complex organic molecules in the protoplanetary disk. However, to create life from these life building blocks, a spark of life is still needed.

THE SPARK OF LIFE

In CERN, the Large Hydron Collider can potentially create microscopic black holes. If this is feasible, then Nano black holes can be created in protoplanetary disks. When a nebula is converted into a sphere with a protoplanetary disk, millions of tons of matter are ejected from the sphere when it ignites to become a star. The speed of the ejected matter is very near to the speed of light. This matter will collide with the material of the protoplanetary disk forming millions of Nano black holes.

Hawking came up with a theory stating that black holes evaporate and release radiation during this process which became known as Hawking Radiation. In Feb 5, 2016, Hawking suggested, in a lecture, to power Earth with mini black holes: “A mountain sized black hole would give off X-rays and gamma-rays at a rate of about 10 million megawatts, enough to power the world’s electricity supply”.26

So what would happen to the Nano black holes in the protoplanetary disk?

A portion of the Nano black holes will evaporate releasing Hawking radiation, while the balance will merge with each other releasing gravitational waves and forming mini black holes. The mini black holes will evaporating after (T1) time releasing also Hawking radiation.

Let us assume that the Nano black holes merge together to form mini black holes. The question now is: how long it will take for Hawking’s mountain sized mini black hole (mBH) to evaporate before the end of the protoplanetary disk life span? The time can be calculated from Hawking equation as follows:27

T1 = 2.097 x 10^67 x (M1/Mo)^3

T1 = the time for the mBH to evaporate (years)

M1 = mass of the mBH. Assume it is double the mass of the Egyptian Great Pyramid (2x6x10^9 Kg)

Mo = solar mass 1.989 x 10^30 Kg.

Substituting the above numbers gives:

T1 = 4.53 x 10^6 years

The estimated life span of protoplanetary disks is 10x10^6 years, This means the mini black holes will evaporate at about 45% of the disk’s life span releasing enormous energy that is thousands of times more than the requirements of our planet.

CONCLUSION

Probably the gravitational waves that are produced during the merge of the Nano black holes plus the released Hawking radiation from the Nano and the mini black holes, during the evaporation process, act as a spark on the existing life building blocks in the protoplanetary disk to create life.




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REFERENCES

5. www.nature.com/nature/journal/v478/n7368/fig_tab/nature10519_F2.html

6. abyss.uoregon.edu/~js/glossary/roche_limit.html

22. The estimated mass of ammonia, methane, and water ices in our solar disk was 1.4% of the solar mass. The solar mass is approximately 2x1027 metric tons. Assuming the three icy compounds had equal mass, then the total mass of water in our solar disk was 0.933x1025 tons.

(atropos.as.arizona.edu/aiz/teaching/nats102/mario/solar_system.html)

Great compilation.
 

SAVO

Active Member
GOD created the earth in 7 days .
then he sent adam to heaven , and created eva from his rib.
then you know the rest of the story

1602453739955.png
for muslim in 6 days (allah on sunday doesnt work )

1602453685975.png(
 
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