Yemen and the fabrication of a bogus-Arab nation


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If the world knows little about Yemen, and more particularly about Ancient Yemen, so do the Yemenites and the Yemenite schoolchildren. Why does this happen?

If the world knows little about Yemen, and more particularly about Ancient Yemen, so do the Yemenites and the Yemenite schoolchildren. The subject is not properly studied even in Yemeni universities, and consequently it is maladroitly incorporated at the level of primary and secondary education; as expected this affects the average Yemenite culture. In brief, the Yemenites, contrarily to Turks, Greeks, Persians, Russians and Italians, ignore quasi-totally their past.

Why does this happen?
The Ancient Yemenite epigraphic monuments have been deciphered by European explorers first; the leading excavations have been undertaken by European archeologists first; the analysis of literary documentation about Yemen in other languages has been carried out by European philologists, and yet the entire situation looks similar to what occurred in Greece. Why then the indifference and the ignorance?

One could suggest that this is due to the Muslim identity of the country, supposing that this leads to indifference for Pre-Islamic periods. Yet, this proved to be wrong in Turkey, Iran, Pakistan and elsewhere.

As there is a direct link between the average culture, the knowledge of the past, and the political – diplomatic direction of any country, Yemen was thought as proper victim of the post-WW I situations, and although the country avoided to be merged with Hedjaz, no characteristics of a really independent country were foreseen for the otherwise isolated (from the Western world) country. The colonial plan for Yemen involved cultural annihilation in the name of a false Arabic identity that had to be imposed, abnormally and tyrannically.

This critical issue is not presented in Western universities, but we know very well that we cannot find the Sublime Truth there, only verisimilar analyses that promote at the same time the Western interests in the area in question. Who would possibly suggest that we can disconnect the establishment of the modern Western sciences from the Western countries’ own socio-economic interests?

Yemen’s past, if correctly studied, interpreted, analyzed and diffused among modern Yemenites, would automatically imply a shift in Yemen’s foreign policy orientations. This is precisely what the colonial powers do not want to happen, as far as colonized countries are concerned.

In fact, if an administration strives to achieve real success in its natural expansion policies (I mean legitimate aspirations here, and this is all foreign policy is about), the administration of the country in question should base its aspirations on historical pillars that had been set and consolidated during the important moments of that country’s past. These pillars have been proven successful for long, as shaping the axes of the country’s natural expansion.

The weight of History
There is a way to categorize therefore the countries of the world, based on History; divided into just two categories, countries can be either historical and non-historical. Historical countries are Rome, Russia, Iceland, Mongolia, Japan, Peru, Ecuador, Tanzania, Senegal, and many other countries as well. Non-historical countries are modern states set up on soil where no significant cultures, civilizations, or states had been formed in the past. Non-historical countries are Canada, the USA, Brazil, Chile, Angola, South Africa, Australia, and New Zealand.

Generally speaking there are few 'really' non-historical countries (we do not consider Vanuatu, Tuvalu, Caicos and other atoll-level entities as 'real' states however). There is not a single non-historical country on European or Asiatic soil, and the majority of the African states are definitely historical states, either they were the center of a historical cradle of civilization, i.e. Mali, or just a periphery to it, f.i. Nigeria. Sub-Saharan Southern / South-Western Africa is the non-historical part of Africa.

But the majority of the modern states in America and all the states of Oceania are non-historical. One can understand the entire world very differently, if one views present day realities through this viewpoint. And we have full proof that the colonial empires keep doing so, preserving a secret, an invisible let’s say, kind of power for their benefit, and in the perspective of perpetuating the current status of affairs.

However, what we have been suggesting here for Yemen is not different from the way today’s France views and pursues its foreign policy, defending its own interests; it is not different from the way Russia makes its foreign policy decisions, and it does not differ from the way the Islamic sultanates, khanates and emirates shaped their foreign policy prescriptions, and so on.

There is no difference between big and small countries in this regard; or to put it better, there must not be. If there is a qualitative difference in the way a country views its own foreign policy interests and if the local establishment and government follow an unstable attitude, ignore the historical weight, and base their foreign policy on ideologies, theories, theologies or feelings, then the existence of the state is jeopardized, and we have good reason to expect the incompetent regime or government to reduce their country to deplorable conditions of dependence, subservience or civil war.

Assessing their country’s past through an unbiased standpoint, the local government can get a clear idea about the basic historical pillars of ethnic - cultural identity and the way socioeconomic, national development was achieved in the past; they can therefore identify the historical lines of national expansion and follow them.

Based on attested historical realities and documented national aspirations, an administration may set an efficient system of governance to duly advance its foreign policy aims. The aforementioned assessment consists in the necessary, initial and fundamental level.

In this manner, we can conclude that France acts after the model (and follows the practices) of the Roman Empire in Numidia and North-Western Africa, whereas the USSR acted as Moscow - "Third Rome’ (inheriting Rome and Constantinople) in Eastern Europe, imposing values, theories, ideology and worldview. Similarly, China acts as the Han Empire in Central Asia, ensuring trade continuity, peace, and cultural-economic exchanges with the Western Asiatic states.

French Colonial Ideology
One of the gravest distortions of History that has been diffused by the colonial authorities, and mostly due to the deliberately fabricated French colonial ideology, is the false 'Modern Arab identity', namely the theory that the various Arabic speaking peoples are 'Arabs', supposedly having much in common, and therefore 'logically' pursuing Arabizing policies! At this point, I have to add that the English imitated the French in this field, and they tried always to cope with them, but in reality, the English Orientalists invented truly very little in this direction.

The bogus dogma of Pan-Arabism was established and diffused among the colonized masses that have been detached from their only normal and natural state, i.e. the Ottoman Empire. This occurred because the colonial French had planned to totally and irreversibly divert these nations (namely the Berbers, the Copts, the Cushites, the Aramaeans, and the Yemenites) from achieving (each one a different) historical self-knowledge and clear identity, involving appreciation and full assessment of their historical traits, character, and natural expansion directions.

Actually, Yemenites are not Arabs, and they were never Arabs! They have always been Yemenites, who got partly Arabized (in the past), as result to their Islamization. Gradually (and not all of them), they accepted Arabic language, since that was the holy language of the religion that Hadhrat Ali ibn Abi Taleb, son-in law of Muhammad, when the Prophet was still alive, came to preach in Yemen (630). As the majority of the Yemenites had already gradually accepted Monophysitic or Nestorian Christianity, Islam was ideologically very close to them, and all the Yemenites, even the Persian colonizing army officers and local administrator, accepted the preaching.

The diffusion of Arabic was very slow, and never complete; in vast parts of Hadhramawt, and in Socotra, significant populations speak forms of ancient Yemenite languages that have survived without hindrance since those dates.

Quite unfortunately, all indigenous nations that maintained their original languages met the French and English hatred; the colonial powers persecuted all local languages, because they could help indigenous peoples recreate great moments of their past, therefore threatening the illegal and inhuman French and English Freemasonic and racist plans. Mahri (or Mahrani) and Soqotri are (and must be utterly recognized as) today the only really authentic means of expression and communication among Yemenites. These two endangered languages should therefore become a matter of great concern for intellectuals and linguists, historians and sociologists, because of the permanent serious threat emanating from the colonial agenda and lethal imposition of the French fabricated dogmas on the quasi-illiterate local elite at Sanaa.

US Blacks are English native speakers, but not Anglo-Saxon
The phenomenon of linguistic Arabization did not make of the Yemenites 'Arabs'; they are just Arabic-speaking Yemenites, in the same way the third generation African Americans in the US, who forgot completely their original African language and speak only English, did not become Anglo-Saxons, but just English-speaking!

Can you imagine an African American writing a pamphlet on Anglo-Saxon nationalism?
So, how can we afford to possibly accept a Yemenite, an Algerian, a Bahraini, a Syrian, an Iraqi or a Sudanese pseudo-intellectual pathetically propagate 'Pan-Arabism'? The fact that all these people may follow Islam or Christianity is a completely different subject; one should not confuse religion and nation-building!

As a matter of fact, it is not only the Yemenites, who are not Arabs!
The Sudanese and the Somalis are not Arabs; the Egyptians and the Libyans are not Arabs; the Arabic-speaking people of Maghreb are not Arabs; the Syrians, the Lebanese, the Iraqis, the Palestinians, the Jordanians, the Kuwaitis, the Bahrainis, the people of Qatar, the Emirates and Oman are not Arabs. None of them is Arab!

Sudanese are Meroites / Cushites, who got Arabized because Islamized.
Somalis are Hamitic/Cuchitic Africans, who did not even get Arabized after they got Islamized.

Egyptians are Hamitic Africans, 'Kemetians''; to some extent, they mixed with various peoples (Phoenicians, Cushites, Aramaeans, Iranians, Macedonians, Greeks, etc.) already during the Antiquity. They Egyptians, known as Copts during the Christian times, gradually got linguistically Arabized, because they were Islamized.

Even the Copts (erroneously and due to the disastrous colonial involvement, this word means nowadays only the 'Christian Egyptians', whereas all Egyptians are Copts) got gradually Arabized, because of the criminal colonial involvement of France in Egypt – an event that started with Napoleon's gangster-like expedition. It is noteworthy that 210 years ago there were still many Coptic native speakers, who did not speak a word of Arabic, but they became the victims of the pernicious colonial policies of fraudulent and dehumanizing Arabization.

Libyans and NW African people are all Berbers (either they speak Berber langiages or not), i.e. Hamitic natives.

Syrians, Iraqis, Lebanese, Kuwaitis, Palestinians, Jordanians, Arabic-speaking people in SE Turkey and SW Iran, as well as people at the north-eastern coast of the peninsula (either in Saudi Arabia or in the Emirates and Qatar) are all Aramaeans, who gradually got Arabized, because they were Islamized. Yet, all the Christian populations in Lebanon, SE Turkey, SW Iran, Iraq, Syria, Jordan and Palestine speak the latest form of Aramaic language, i.e. Syriac. Here one should add that Arabic writing originates from 2nd century CE Aramaic Syriac cursive writing.

To go back in time for a while, one has to underscore that, at an earlier stage, Babylonians, Phoenicians, Philistines / Palestinians, and Jews had got Aramaized, and this is the reason of the existence of various Aramaic languages, dialects and idioms.

Very small number of 7th c. Arabs intermingled with indigenous peoples
Speaking about the early diffusion of Islam in the lands of the Aramaeans, several scholars pretend that there was a certain Arabization at the ethnic level due to the fact that people intermingled with one another during the early Islamic times, pretty much like they have usually done so throughout the History of Mankind. According to those scholars, that 'fact' contributed to the creation of the current situation. But in this case, the counter-argument collapses automatically. Intermixed populations have a definite impact at the racial / ethnic level, only when they occur in significant proportions.

The Aramaization of Babylonia was a long procedure that did not occur at the linguistic only but also at the ethnic/racial level; great masses of Aramaeans were living among Babylonians in the area of today’s Central and Southern Iraq for many centuries. But this situation was not reproduced at the times of the early expansion of Islam!

As far as Yemen is concerned, the only Arabs, who came to Yemen to diffuse Islam, did not even constitute a small army of invaders! It was just a small group, Ali ibn Abi Taleb, the prophet’s son-in law, and his limited company of men, who almost all returned with Ali back to Mecca! After the Yemenite adhesion to Islam, there was no need for Arabs to invade Yemen, and protect local Muslims or diffuse Islam! Certainly, there were few Arab merchants crossing Yemen, but the trade route to Petra, Syria and the Roman Empire was an area where rather the Yemenites were actively moving, not the Arabs.

More importantly, the valuable epigraphic evidence excavated in Yemen and deciphered with the help of Ge'ez (Ancient Abyssinian) proves that all the Ancient Yemenite languages (Sabaean, Himyarite, Qatabani, Hadhrami, etc.) were linguistically different from the Pre-Islamic Arabic dialects, being closer to Ge'ez. Even worse, the Arabic pre-Islamic alphabet, which derived from Syriac, was very different from the Yemenite syllabic (or syllabary) script.

The Process of the Linguistic Arabization of the Yemenites
Although the case of Yemen’s Islamization was different from that of Mesopotamia and Syria, many intend to discuss it within the context of the overall diffusion of Islam in Syria, Palestine and Mesopotamia (636 to 641). Well, we know very well that the first perception of Islam by people living in what we call now the Mashreq (Palestine, Jordan, Lebanon, Israel, Syria, Iraq, Kuwait) was that of one more Christological heresy or rather a latter Nestorian ideology.

This is, as we said, one of the reasons Islam was so easily accepted in Yemen, where Nestorianism had already taken deep roots, as a rejection of both, the Monophysitic Axumite (Abyssinian) Christianity and the Constantinopolitan and Roman Orthodoxy.

As a matter of fact, the Aramaean populations of these lands, namely the eastern provinces of the Eastern Roman Empire and the western provinces of the Sassanid Empire of Iran, were ethnically and linguistically different from the populations living in the central provinces of both empires (the Eastern Romans and the Persians). Furthermore, they belonged to religious systems and cultural backgrounds that differed greatly from those prevailing in the respective two capitals. Even worse, the Aramaeans were extremely exploited by the taxation systems of both empires. In addition, the Aramaeans faced continuous oppression and experienced heavy casualties, following the continuous wars fought between the two empires; this was so because these wars took place in their own, Aramaean, land, where few Eastern Romans and Persians lived.

The Aramaeans in their majority were Nestorian Christians; that's why they did not call Jesus' mother 'Theotokos’' (Mother of God) but 'Christotokos' (Mother of the Messiah). It would be very easy and very logical for them to join the little Islamic armies in a fight against the Eastern Roman Empire and the Sassanid Empire of Iran in order to get rid of the ominous oppression exercised over them by the two imperial administrations. But -and this is deliberately hidden due to the colonial bogus-historians’ deeds- those early Islamic armies were including already many Yemenites who had converted Muslims! Even the earliest Islamic armies, those fighting in the Battle of Yarmouk River, were not exclusively 'Arab'!

So, to offer a mere indication, at those days, the entire Arab population (which lived basically in Hedjaz) did not exceed the population of just one major Aramaean, Egyptian, Iranian or Eastern Roman city, e.g. Antioch, Damascus, Edessa of Osrhoene, Alexandria, Tesifoun (Ctesiphon), Istakhr, Gundishapur, Constantinople, Ephesus, and so on.

What happened a few years later is meaningful. Aramaean converts joined the Islamic armies in the fight against the central provinces of the Sassanid Iran, against Egypt (an Eastern Roman province), and then moved far to Northwestern Africa.

Subsequently, Yemenite, Aramaean, Egyptian, African, and Iranian converts participated in the attack against the central provinces of the Eastern Roman Empire (Muwawiyah’s attack against Constantinople at 677). Arabs consisted in only a tiny minority within that army, and Eastern Roman chronographers, like Theophanes, called these armies not 'Arab', but 'Saracen', a recapitulative term denoting populations living in Northern Hejaz and in the vicinity of Syria and Southern Mesopotamia.

To complete this point, one should add that only people originating from Hejaz and the desert should logically claim to be 'Arabs'; however, we also know that, during the Islamic times, many Muslims from Iran, Egypt, Africa, Central Asia, Anatolia, and India moved and settled permanently in Medina and in Mecca up to the point that they, due to their ceaselessly increasing numbers, turned the indigenous Arabs of Hejaz into an Afro-Asiatic ethnic-racial mixture. So, even in the land of origin of the Arabs, long before the modern times already, there were no Arabs anymore, just Arabic-speaking populations.

The absurd effort to make of all these populations a 'nation' and the inconsistent theoretical fabrication of Pan-Arabism (or Arab Nationalism) are taboo subjects for the European and American universities whereby no one is accepted to study topics related to this issue and refute the lamentable theory!

Pan-Arabism was indeed the device by which France and England destroyed the Ottoman Empire; this happened because besotted and subservient, lewd and miserable people from among the local populations were selected by the European colonials to become the future local 'leaders'; these persons were gullible enough to give credit to the words of the invaders and believe they would rule their countries. In the process, they accepted all the theories and the ideas that their Anglo-French colonial masters taught them. In reality all these numerous comical bogus-kings, clownish presidents, and grotesque tyrants (starting with the Macedonian Albanian Muhammad Ali of Egypt) were execrable puppets that betrayed their own country, i.e. the Ottoman Empire, thus becoming repugnant renegades.

In a later phase, Pan-Arabism engulfed the besotted populations of these large areas in permanent analphabetism, under-development and unprecedented misery. The reason is simple: a theory that misleads people as regards their true identity and integrity can never bring about development. Even in case of rich natural resources, the way these renegades spoiled their treasures is enough to show that unfounded wealth is the worst advisor. It never helps a nation.

Why doesn't the 'wealthy' state of the Emirates (UAE) {with 2.4 million inhabitants producing 129.4 billion US $ (49700 US $ per capita GDP), and total surface area larger than Israel's} possess half the military power, half the nuclear capacity, half the intellectual-academic-scientific resources, and half the political / diplomatic importance of 4.8 million Israelis {producing 166.3 billion US $ (26200 US $ per capita GDP)}, despite the fact that the UAE never had all the security problems that Israel has had (precisely because of the nature of their state)?

The answer is simple: before the establishment of the bogus-state called ‘UAE’, the local population had been so opaquely besotted by means of Pan-Arabism and Islamism (which is not a religion or theology, but a form of degenerated materialism, and as such it consists in an additional tool in the hands of colonial powers). The indigenous populations of the UAE, before the proclamation of their national 'independence', were already convinced that the best they could expect in their lives was wealth due to Oil resources' exploitation.

In one of the world’s worst expressions of apism, the administrators of that bogus-state do their best to always please their Western masters. One can be sure that their attitude will never change, unless the victims of the besotting and dehumanizing ideology of Pan-Arabism wake up one day out of miracle, and then they reject it properly and irreversibly.

Yemen’s future lies with Eastern Africa, not with 'Arabs' or the Gulf States
Yemen's future should rather be viewed as close to that of the Eastern Africans. The fact that perhaps today's Yemenites do not understand this reality may be due to the erroneous colonial model of History that has been projected over Yemen. Not only the Yemenites are closer to the Somalis and the coastal Kenyans and Tanzanians (than to Iraqis, Algerians and Lebanese), but this reality also reflects the diachronic trends and tendencies of the Yemenite expansion and naval–commercial rule over a vast part of the Indian Ocean.

Yet, one has to remember that, at the times of the author of the 'Periplus of the Erythraean (Red) Sea', the Yemenites were accredited with colonial control over Azania, i.e. the Eastern African coast from the Horn of Africa (Cape Guardafui) down to Darussalam! Through the lines of many texts, and thanks to archeological explorations and excavations, we have reconstituted a 500 years long (1st millennium BCE) thalassocracy of the Islamic Yemenite sailors and mariners throughout the Indian Ocean from India and Indonesia to East Africa and the Red Sea.

Ancient Qataban Yemenites seem to have unveiled the secrets of the navigation during the monsoons, and thus they were the first to sail straight form the Horn of Africa to the southernmost coasts of India. Yemenite sailors found first the Macassar ebony wood, and despite the Roman attack against Aden, which occurred in the early years of Octavian's rule, the Yemenites kept playing a determinant role in the interstate, socio-economic, cultural and religious developments across the Eastern African coast, during the Sassanid Iranian and the Eastern Roman times.

Despite the short-lived occupation and precarious control of Western Yemen by the Axumite king Kaleb in Yemen, the Iranians and the Yemenites kept controlling the navigation across the Indian Ocean, and this phenomenon continued for many long centuries after the rise of Islam. In fact, the literary background of the famous Sindbad cycle (set in the Abbasid times) is due to the legendary presence and incessant commercial activities of Yemenite sailors in the Indian Ocean and further on in the China Sea and the Pacific. When Islamic times' Chinese texts refer to Arabs, they mean Yemenites!

The reign of the famous Muslim Yemenite Queen Arwa reign proves by itself how closer to Hamitic Africa the Yemenites have always been!

Historical Geography for Tomorrow
Central Asia and China are far from Yemen. India is not far, but India is so huge that it would easily absorb Yemen economically! Furthermore, as India becomes a global hub for Services and, in the same way, China becomes a global hub for Manufacturing and Industry, Yemen would be viewed as an unworthy Lilliputian.

Contrarily to these options, Yemen could create a multi-cultural, progressive community of 250 million people, within which Yemen could eventually become the locomotive, not in terms of financial advancement (the level is the same for all ten Horn of Africa countries) but through intelligence, volunteering commitment, thirst for development and progress, and last but not least, through cultural radiation and communication among the ten (10) suggested countries.

At the moment, in Yemen representativeness, accountability, and the rule of law are missing. As there are many African peoples in search of a free, independent, modern, multicultural society, the Yemenites may again feel closer to them than to their uncultured and uneducated, barbaric northern neighbors.

Yemen in a Search for Identity and New Horizons
What is the best way for Self-Knowledge, Self-Understanding, and correct Cultural and Political Representation of one’s Identity?

Well, the question, I think, can be answered in many manners; Germany and Italy constitute good models; republican Russia is another; the same is valid for India, China and Mexico. But there is nothing better than finding one's own path and the methods that best suit a nation's traits and potentialities. What follows can offer some ideas that will surely take Yemen out of the present swamp and far from the dangers ensuing from the backward, pseudo-Islamic, inhuman and criminal neighbor north of Yemen.

a. Ancient Yemenite in the Secondary Education
A greater part of interest for the Ancient Yemenite world must be expressed at all levels, namely education, mass media, average culture, art & literature, social life, and governance. Modern Arabic translation of the entire Ancient Yemenite epigraphic documentation will certainly popularize the subjects.

A Corpus of Ancient Greek and Roman texts relating to the pre-Islamic Yemen must be established within a National Research Center working close with a university. It will be complemented by an equivalent Corpus of the rich Ancient Yemenite epigraphic evidence, and both have to be translated into Modern Arabic.

Primary and Secondary Education manuals must be re-written with extensive focus not only on the pre-Islamic History of Yemen itself, but also on the interactions and the interconnections of Ancient Yemen with the Horn of Africa, India, Iran, Mesopotamia, Egypt, and the Mediterranean world. The importance of the Ancient Yemenite contributions to the World History must be stressed analytically.

Studying Ancient Yemenite in Yemen is not of philological, but of national interest. Pending a considerable increase in the number of European tourists, a new generation of Yemenite guides must be formed that will be fluent in and able to read Ancient Yemenite inscriptions in the same way today a Greek guide in Greece and an Italian guide in Italy are able to read epigraphic documentation in Ancient Greek and Latin.

Within a perspective of 5 (five) years, Ancient Yemenite literature must be introduced – in the form of text, translation, and commentary – to the Secondary Education’s three last years’ courses for all the Yemenites. It must be done in the same way Latin is present within the modern Italian educational system.

b. Language / Literature / Folklore Academies for Suqutri in Qalansiya, and for Mehri in Qishn
Delving into the past means at times better understanding the present. Large projects must be undertaken for the preservation, writing, cultivation, and propagation of the Mehri, Suqutri, and Hobyot languages, but also of the neighboring Oman’s Jibbali, Harsusi and Bathari that are survival forms of Ancient Yemenite languages.

A special National Committee must be formed in this regard, and an entire plan must be made in order to save traditions, songs, and all the expressions of folklore within these most valuable linguistic entities of Yemen.

An Academy of Suqutri in Qalansiya, and an Academy of Mehri in Qishn must be the basic tools that will help up to the point of creating university courses in Soqotri and Mehri (in a perspective of 10 to 15 years). This will classify Yemen among the leading countries of the world in preserving Endangered Languages, therefore bearing testimony to the multicultural and multilingual commitment of a fully and duly representative administration.

c. Cooperation for the establishment of an Italian Red Sea University at Al Mokha
Taking into consideration basic trends in the global world of academic establishments, Yemen must anticipate things expected to happen within the next 10 to 15 years. The reaction of Francophonie to English, which is the currently prevailing language in the Internet, is going to have consequences. Sooner or later, Spaniards, Germans, Chinese, Brazilians and Russians will follow in the path of national language protection.

There are two ways to counterweight the English medium universities, but until now only one has been implemented, namely the establishment of another foreign linguistic medium university. Indeed, we have got French universities in several countries where the citizens are not French native speakers, namely Turkey, Egypt, etc. We have also got a German University outside the limits of Mitteleuropa.

Evaluating the traditional interest of Italy in the area of the Red Sea and the Horn of Africa, Eastern Somalia, Abyssinia, and more particularly Eritrea, the Italian involvement in the decipherment of Ancient Yemenite, as well as in Egyptology, Meroitic Studies, and Ge'ez Studies, one can introduce the concept of an Italian Mare Rosso (Red Sea) University at al Mokha where Eritreans, Sudanese, Abyssinians, Somalis, Omanis as well as Mozambicans, Malagasies, Tanzanians and Kenyans will be studying along with the Yemenite students in an effort to promote mutual understanding, exploration of the common historical past, multilateral cooperation, and concord. This university could soon become the hub of regional development of human resources that will be needed over the next 50 years.

Italy will certainly find the project as an excellent way of propagating Italian language, education, and culture, as well as of expanding economic and political interests in an area that was long considered by the Italian establishment as falling within their 'domain'. The project will have an impact on the first steps of regional interconnection (trade, navigation, transportation, communications, etc.), as well as on Tourism in Yemen.

d. The Future of the Global Academia is in Bilingual Universities
This approach constitutes the second means of opposition to the current preponderance of English, but until now it did not draw due attention. As per this concept, one of the two linguistic media announced and instituted by the bilingual university is already the native language to all the local students (there may also be foreign students). Before the regular beginning of studies, all students attend for an entire year (involving attendance of 6 hours per day and during 9 months) courses of intensive learning of the second official language of the university. Then, the main 3 or 4-year Bachelor syllabus is offered in both languages, with some courses being offered every year in one language and other courses being conducted in the second language. All papers are issued in two languages, and the academic staff itself is asked to learn the second, eventually unknown, language within the span of 3 years, and to be able to teach in this language as well within the span of 5 years.

1. Chinese/Arabic University
Nothing could help China penetrate the Arabic speaking world better than a bilingual Arabic/Chinese University established in Yemen. This would soon become the high place of Chinese students learning Arabic, since the Chinese attribute great importance to direct talks in negotiations. Furthermore, this university would offer them a cheap way to adequately and correctly form the Arabic-speaking part of the Beijing establishment. At the same time, it would make of Yemen the converging place and the focal point for rich and poor Arabic-speaking countries' students wishing to find job opportunities in numerous Chinese companies that appear in the Middle East, in the rising incoming Chinese tourism, or in various other fields.

2. Russian/Arabic, and Turkish/Arabic universities
The eventuality of bilingual Russian/Arabic, and Turkish/Arabic universities may also be considered worthy financing among many financial, political and academic circles in Russia, in Turkey, and in several Central Asiatic countries (notably Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, and Azerbaijan) where both Russian and Turkish constitute means of communication and very often the second native language.

3. Portuguese/Arabic university
Working closely with several regional and international partners in this regard, Yemen can envisage, plan and launch a particular bilingual university that would be located half on Yemenite soil, and half on Mozambican soil. For this project, Brazil, Portugal (and therefore the European Union), Angola and also Macao would have to closely cooperate. It would consist in a cheap way for Portuguese to prepare their own Arabic-speaking class of establishment, which would help this southern European country in penetrating the North-Western African market. More than anything else such a tool would be useful for Brazil, a rising pole of power in tomorrow's multipolar world. This new university would help Brazil plan how to best set foot in Africa and in the Arabic-speaking region, which both consist in an ideal market opportunity for the fast expanding Latin American gigantic country.

First published on 22nd April 2007 in American Chronicle, Buzzle and AfroArticles


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